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Panopa croizati (HORTON, 1973)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Mabuyinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Horton's Mabuya 
SynonymMabuya croizati HORTON 1973
Mabuya croizati — MAUSFELD et al. 2002
Panopa croizati — HEDGES & CONN 2012: 137 
DistributionNE Venezuela (Antzoategui, Sucre: endemic to the Turimiquire Massif), Bazil (Sao Paulo)

Type locality: Venezuela, Sucre, Mt. Tutumiquire  
TypesHolotype: AMNH 29314 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). Species in this genus are characterized by (1) frontoparietals, one, (2) supraciliaries, 4–6, (3) supraoculars, four, (4) prefrontal contact, present (a single, fused prefrontal), (5) parietal contact, present, (6) rows of nuchals, usually 3–5, (7) dorsals + ventrals, 115–126, (8) total lamellae, 191–209, (9) a dark middorsal stripe, absent, (10) dark dorsolateral stripes, present, (11) a dark lateral stripe, present, and (12) dark ventral striping, absent. They are intermediately sized, with a range of maximum body sizes among the species of 69–76 mm SVL (Table 2).

The presence of a single (fused) frontoparietal scale separates Panopa from all other genera (two, or rarely three frontoparietals) except Aspronema (1–2 scales) and Exila and Notomabuya (one scale). The presence of prefrontal contact or fusion separates Panopa from Brasiliscincus, Capitellum, Notomabuya, and Psychosaura (no prefrontal contact) and from Alinea, Aspronema, Copeoglossum, Mabuya, Manciola, Maracaiba, and Marisora (no or rare contact). The presence of 3–5 rows of nuchals separates Panopa from all other genera (fewer than three rows) except Alinea (1–3 rows), Exila (2–3 rows), and Spondylurus (1–3 rows). Panopa also have blue tails in juveniles and adults. The only other mabuyines known to have blue tails are Spondylurus lineolatus of Hispaniola (juveniles and adults) and S. powelli sp. nov. (juveniles only).

DIAGNOSIS (species). Mabuya with paired prefrontals and fused frontoparietals, parietal plates incontact with each other behind the interparietal plate, two to four pairs of nuchals. Five, rarely six, supraciliaries subequal in size. Palms and soles dark coloured. Body with six longitudinal dark stripes; two dorsal stripes running from supranasals or frontonasal, to the base of the tail where they fuse, two dorsolateral stripes and two lateral stripes. 
CommentType Species: Mabuya croizati Horton, 1973:75 is the type species of the genus Panopa HEDGES & CONN 2012.

Behavior: diurnal

Habitat: rock-dwelling and heliophylous 
EtymologyEtymology (genus). The generic name (Panopa) is a feminine noun and is derived from the Greek adjective pan (whole, undivided) and noun lopas (flat plate), in allusion to the single (fused) frontoparietal scale. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B. & Conn, C.E. 2012. A new skink fauna from Caribbean islands (Squamata, Mabuyidae, Mabuyinae). Zootaxa 3288: 1–244 - get paper here
  • Horton, D.R. 1973. A new species of Mabuya (Lacertilia: Scincidae) from Venezuela. Journal of Herpetology 7 (2): 75-77 - get paper here
  • MANZANILLA, J., D. SÁNCHEZ, I. MARTÍNEZ-SOLANO, D. BUCKLEY & L. DE SOUSA 2006. Historia natural, notas taxonómicas y estado de conservación de Mabuya croizati Horton, 1973 (Reptilia: Scincidae). Natural history, taxonomic notes and conservation status of Mabuya croizati Horton, 1973 (Reptilia: Scincidae). Herpetotropicos 3 (1): 41-50 - get paper here
  • Mausfeld, Patrick; Andreas SCHMITZ; Wolfgang BÖHME; Bernhard MISOF; Davor VRCIBRADIC; Carlos Frederico Duarte ROCHA 2002. Phylogenetic Affinities of Mabuya atlantica Schmidt, 1945, Endemic to the Atlantic Ocean Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha (Brazil): Necessity of Partitioning the Genus Mabuya Fitzinger, 1826 (Scincidae: Lygosominae). Zool. Anz. 241: 281–293 - get paper here
  • Miralles, A.; Rivas Fuenmayor, G. & Barrio-Amoros, C.L. 2005. Taxonomy of the genus Mabuya (Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae) inVenezuela. Zoosystema 27 (4): 825-837
  • Miralles, A.; S. Carranza 2010. Systematics and biogeography of the Neotropical genus Mabuya, with special emphasis on the Amazonian skink Mabuya nigropunctata (Reptilia, Scincidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54 (3): 857-869 - get paper here
  • Miralles, Aurélien 2006. A new species of Mabuya (Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae) from the Caribbean Island of San Andrés, with a new interpretation of nuchal scales: a character of taxonomic importance. The Herpetological Journal 16 (1):1-7. - get paper here
  • MIRALLES, AURÉLIEN; GILSON RIVAS FUENMAYOR, CÉLINE BONILLO, WALTER E. SCHARGEL, TITO BARROS, JUAN E. GARCÍA-PEREZ, CÉSAR L. BARRIO-AMORÓS 2009. Molecular systematics of Caribbean skinks of the genus Mabuya (Reptilia, Scincidae), with descriptions of two new species from Venezuela. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 598-616 - get paper here
  • Reboucas-Spieker R. VANZOLINI P E. 1990. Mabuya carvalhoi, expecies nova do estado de Roraima, Brasil (SAURIA SCINCIDAE). REVISTA BRASILEIRA DE BIOLOGIA 50, (2): 377- 386
  • RIVAS, GILSON A.; CÉSAR R. MOLINA, GABRIEL N. UGUETO, TITO R. BARROS, CÉSAR L. BAR- RIO-AMORÓS & PHILIPPE J. R. KOK 2012. Reptiles of Venezuela: an updated and commented checklist. Zootaxa 3211: 1–64 - get paper here
  • Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut 2000. A new species of Mabuya (Squamata: Scincidae) from the semiarid Caatingas of northeastern Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 41(21):313-328
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