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Paralaudakia caucasia (EICHWALD, 1831)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Caucasian Agama
G: Kaukasus-Agame 
SynonymLacerta muricata PALLAS (non Lacerta muricata SHAW, 1801)
Stellio caucasicus EICHWALD 1831: 187 (nom. subst.)
Stellio caucasius EICHWALD 1831
Stellio caucasicus — DE FILIPPI 1867: 145
Stellio persicus ANDERSON 1872: 382 (non Agama persicus BLANFORD 1881; fide SMITH 1935)
Agama caucasica — BOULENGER 1885
Agama reticulata NIKOLSKY 1912 (fide TERENTJEV & TCHERNOW 1949)
Agama caucasica — SMITH 1935: 220
Agama caucasica — LEVITON 1959: 461
Agama caucasica — THIEME 1980
Agama caucasia — ORLOWA 1981
Stellio caucasius – ANANJEVA et al. 1988: 5106
Stellio caucasius — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Laudakia caucasicus — BAIG & BÖHME 1995
Laudakia caucasicus — DAS 1996: 44
Laudakia caucasia — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 77
Laudakia caucasica — SZCZERBAK 2003
Laudakia caucasia — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Stellio caucasia – HALL 2009
Paralaudakia caucasia — BAIG et al. 2012 
DistributionS Russia (Caucasus, Dagestan), E/S Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, SW Turkmenistan, Tajikistan (ANANJEVA & ORLOV 1979), E Turkey (E Anatolia, Armenia) [TERENTJEV & CHERNOV 1949], Iraq ?, N Iran, Afghanistan, NW Pakistan (incl. Waziristan, N Baluchistan [KHAN 2002]), NW India ?

Distribution fide BAIG et al. 2012: Transcaucasia, Turkey, N Iran, N Afghanistan, Turkmenia, Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan.

Type locality: Tiflis (= Tbilisi, Georgia) and Baku (Azerbaijan) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesTypes: not located (ANDERSON 1999)
Holotype: ZISP 10718, “Tschubek, Buchara orient.” [Chubek, Khatlon province, Tajikistan]. Leg: N. A. Zarudny, 24.VI.1910 [Agama reticulata Nikolsky 1911: 272] 
CommentType species: Stellio caucasius Eichwald, 1831 is the type species of the genus Paralaudakia BAIG et al. 2012. The subdivision of Laudakia in several genera remains somewhat controversial (see, e.g. Melville et al. 2009).

Diagnosis (Paralaudakia). Tail arranged in distinct whorles of usu- ally three, only sometimes two or four scale annulis. Gular scales smooth. Vertebral scales larger than other dorsal scales, body scales heterogeneous, irregular and keeled. Tail length about two times of the snout-vent length or longer [BAIG et al. 2012].

Diagnosis (Paralaudakia caucasia). Medium to large size; head and body de- pressed; olivaceous above with black rimmed yellow ocelli; vertebral enlarged scales keeled; flanks with en- larged mucronate scales; tail segment of two; callous glands present [BAIG et al. 2012].

Nomenclature: Laudakia caucasia (not caucasica) is the proper name (W. Böhme, Salamandra 34 (1): 96).

Synonymy partly after KHALIKOV & ANANJEVA (pers. comm.). Agama caucasica mucronata is now considered as a valid species. Lacerta muricata SHAW, 1801 = Amphibolurus muricatus).

Subspecies: Stellio caucasica triannulatus has been transferred to Laudakia microlepis.

Similar species: Has been confused with L. microlepis.

Distribution: BAIG et al. 2012 state that S Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan are occupied by P. microlepis but not caucasia. P. caucasia and P. microlepis may be sympatric in some parts of Turkmenia and northeastern Afghanistan. See map in YOUSEFKHANI HOSSEINIAN et al. 2013. 
EtymologyEtymology (Paralaudakia). The chosen name refers to Laudakia (as allusion of the formerly used name of the genus) and para [greek for ‘next to’] (to show the relation be- tween the two genera). 
References
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