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Paraphimophis rusticus (COPE, 1878)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesCulebra 
SynonymOxyrrhopus rusticus COPE 1878: 92
Pseudoboa rustica SERIÉ 1921
Clelia rustica — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970
Clelia rustica — FREIBERG 1982
Clelia rustica — CEI 1993
Clelia rustica — LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999: 17
Clelia rustica — SCROCCHI et al. 2010: 210
Clelia rustica — CARREIRA et al. 2012
Paraphimophis rusticus — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Paraphimophis rusticus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 532
Paraphimophis rustica — MINOLI et al. 2015 
DistributionBrazil (S Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul),
Uruguay, Bolivia ? (LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999), Argentina (Santiago del Estero, Córdoba, Corrientes, Misiones, Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, Rio Negro, Chubut)

Type locality: unknown; supposedly in the Argentine confederation (fide ZAHER 1996).  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 11326 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Paraphimophis): Anterolaterally divergent anterior tips of the nasals and enlarged nasal processes of the premaxillae, but no specialized spatulate rostral scale; young specimens with a dark head, a faint pale whitish or orange nuchal collar, a dark vertebral band and reddish flanks; adults with a uniform brown dorsum [GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012].

Diagnosis (species): The reticulate dorsal color pattern and olive ground color can distinguish all specimens of C. rustica, except the rare unicolor exceptions, from the other species treated here (Fig. 13). Hatchlings may lack the pale nuchal collar that is present in all of the other species. In contrast to C. bicolor and C. quimi, C. rustica usually has 7 supralabials (Appendix 1). The snout is short, and the loreal scale often touches the first supralabial, a condition seen only rarely in Boiruna and not at all in the other species (Appendix 3). Many or all of the various records of C. rustica from Paraguay are probably based on specimens of Boiruna with a rustica-like reticulate pattern on the sides of the body. True C. rustica have a uniform dorsal pattern (Fig. 13), and lack the broad dark dorsal stripe present in these Boiruna. The hemipenis of C. rustica is spined, not spineless as in C. plumbea, with usually two pairs of intrasulcal spines (Zaher, 1996); C. clelia and Boiruna never have more than one pair of intrasulcal spines. 
CommentType species: Oxyrrhopus rusticus COPE 1878 is the type species of the genus Paraphimophis ZAHER, GRAZZIOTIN, MURPHY, SCROCCHI, ALTAMIRANO, BENAVIDES, ZHANG & BONATTO in GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012.

Distribution: May not be in Bolivia; while LEYNAUD & BUCHER 1999 show it on their map there do not appear to be any voucher specimens from Bolivia. Not in Paraguay (fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014). 
EtymologyFrom the Greek ‘‘para’’ and Phimophis, meaning near the genus Phimophis. 
  • Bellini, G. P., Arzamendia, V. and Giraudo, A. R. 2016. Is xenodontine snake reproduction shaped by ancestry, more than by ecology? Ecology and Evolution, 00: 1–9. doi: 10.1002/ece3.2557 - get paper here
  • Carreira Vidal, Santiago 2002. Alimentación de los ofidios de Uruguay. Asoc. Herp. Esp., Monograf. Herp. 6, 127 pp. - get paper here
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1878. Tenth contribution to the herpetology of Tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 17: 85-98 [1877] - get paper here
  • Costa, Henrique Caldeira & Renato Silveira Bérnils 2015. Répteis brasileiros: lista de espécies 2015 Herpetologia Brasileira 4 (3): 75-93
  • Giraudo, Alejandro R.;Arzamendia, Venesa 1997. Geographic Distribution. Clelia rustica. Herpetological Review 28 (3): 158-159 - get paper here
  • Grazziotin, Felipe G.; Hussam Zaher, Robert W. Murphy, Gustavo Scrocchi, Marco A. Benavides, Ya-Ping Zhang and Sandro L. Bonatto 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2012.00393.x - get paper here
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Minoli I, Morando M, Avila LJ 2015. Reptiles of Chubut province, Argentina: richness, diversity, conservation status and geographic distribution maps. ZooKeys 498: 103-126. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.498.7476 - get paper here
  • Morato, S.A.A.; Franco, F.L. & Sanches, E.J. 2003. Uma nova espécie de Clelia (Serpentes, Colubridae) do sul do Brasil. Phyllomedusa 2 (2): 93-100 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Pizzatto, L. 2005. Body size, reproductive biology and abundance of the rare pseudoboini snakes genera Clelia and Boiruna (Serpentes, Colubridae). Phyllomedusa 4 (2): 111-122 - get paper here
  • Scanferla, Carlos Agustín 2006. The oldest record of Clelia (Serpentes – Colubridae) in South America. C. R. Palevol. 5: 721–724
  • Scott, N.J.; Giraudo, A.R.; Scrocchi, G.; Aquino, A.L.; Cacciali, P. & Motte, M. 2006. The genera Boiruna and Clelia (Serpentes: Pseudoboini) in Paraguay and Argentina. Pap. Avuls. Zool. 46 (9): 77-105 - get paper here
  • Scrocchi ,G. and Vinas, M. 1990. El género Clelia (Serpentes: Colubridae) en la República Argentina: Revisión y comentários. Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 8: 487-499
  • Scrocchi, G.J.; Moreta, J.C. & Kretzschmar, S. 2006. Serpientes del Noroeste Argento [Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja, Santiago del Estero]. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, 178 pp.
  • Scrocchi, Gustavo J.; Cristian S. Abdala,Javier Nori, Hussam Zaher 2010. Reptiles de la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina Fondo Ed. Rionegrino, 249 pp.
  • Silveira, Adriano Lima. 2014. Geographic Distribution: Paraphimophis rusticus. Herpetological Review 45 (1): 96
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Zaher, H. 1996. A new genus and species of pseudoboine snake, with a revision of the genus Clelia (Serpentes, Xenodontinae). Boll. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino 14: 289-337.
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