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Pareas formosensis (VAN DENBURGH, 1909)

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Higher TaxaPareatidae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Common NamesFormosa Slug Snake 
SynonymAmblycephalus formosensis VAN DENBURGH 1909
Psammodynastes compressus OSHIMA 1910
Amblycephalus kuangtungensis VOGT 1922: 141
Amblycephalus yunnanensis VOGT 1922: 142
Amblycephalus niger POPE 1928: 4
Amblycephalus monticola chinensis — MELL 1931 [1929]
Amblycephalus monticola niger — MELL 1931 [1929]
Amblycephalus komaii MAKI 1931
Pareas komaii NAKAMURA & UÉNO 1971
Pareas formosensis — HU et al. 1980
Pareas formosensis — GUO & DENG 2008
Pareas formosensis — GUO et al. 2011 

Type locality: Kanshirei, Formosa

niger (as synonym): China (Yunnan); Type locality: Yunnanfu (= Kunming Shi), Yunnan Prov., China. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: CAS 18006
Holotype: NSMT H00529 [komaii] 
CommentSynonymy partly after ZHAO & ADLER 1993, Jiang (2004) and Guo & Deng 2009.

Similar species: Pareas formosensis and P. chinensis share very similar coloration and scale patterns (Jiang 2004). However, our molecular phylogenetic results indicate that the two species are not especially closely related within Pareas. Pareas formosensis is the sister species to P. hamptoni, and P. chinensis the sister of P. boulengeri. Close examina- tion of maxillary teeth is consistent with this result. Both P. formosensis and P. hamptoni have 7–8 maxillary teeth, while P. chinensis and P. boulengeri have only 4–5 maxillary teeth (Rao and Yang, 1992). 
EtymologyNamed after its distribution in Taiwan (= Formosa). 
  • Barbour, Thomas 1912. Some Chinese Vertebrates: Amphibia and Reptilia. Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoölogy 40 (4): 125-136 - get paper here
  • Guo, Keji & Deng, Xuejiang 2009. A new species of Pareas (Serpentes: Colubridae: Pareatinae) from the Gaoligong Mountains, southwestern China. Zootaxa 2008: 53-60 - get paper here
  • GUO, YUHONG;, YUNKE WU,, SHUNPING HE, HAITAO SHI & ERMI ZHAO 2011. Systematics and molecular phylogenetics of Asian snail-eating snakes (Pareatidae). Zootaxa 3001: 57–64 - get paper here
  • Hu, BU-QING, MET-HUA HUANG, ZHAN-TAI XIE, ER-MI ZHAO, YAO-MING JIANG, QING-YUN HUANG, Yu ZONG, and J 1980. Atlas of Chinese Snakes [in Chinese]. Shanghai Press Sci. Technol., Shanghai. (3), 5, 3, 166 pages
  • Inger R F; Zhao E; Bradley Shaffer H; Guanfu Wu 1990. Report on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from Sichuan, China. Fieldiana: Zoology (No. 58) : i-iii, 1-24 - get paper here
  • JIANG, Yaoming 2004. Pareas chinensis (Babour, 1912) should be a junior synonym of Pareas formosensis (Van Denburgh, 1909). Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 23(3), 209–210 - get paper here
  • Mell, Rudolf 1922. Beiträge zur Fauna Sinica. i. Die Vertebraten Südchinas; Feldlisten und Feldnoten der Säuger, Vögel, Reptilien, Batrachier. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 88 (10): 1-134
  • Mell,R. 1931. List of Chinese snakes. Lingnan Sci. Jour., Canton, 8 [1929]: 199-219.
  • Ota H. Lin J T. Hirata T. Chen S L. 1997. Systematic review of Colubrid snakes of the genus Pareas in the East Asian islands. Journal of Herpetology 31 (1): 79-87. - get paper here
  • Pope,C.H. 1928. Four new snakes and a new lizard from South China. American Museum Novitates 325: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Rao, D.Q. & D.T. YANG 1992. Phylogenetic systematics of Pareinae (Serpents) of southeastern Asia and adjacent islands with relationship between it and the geology changes. [In Chinese, English summary]. Acta zool. Sinica, 38 (2): 139-150.
  • Stejneger, L. 1910. The batrachians and reptiles of Formosa. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 38: 91-114 - get paper here
  • Toriba, M. 1993. Present location of the type specimens described by Maki. The Snake 25: 71-72
  • Van DENBURGH, JOHN 1909. New and previously unrecorded species of reptiles and amphibians from the island of Formosa. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 3 (3): 49-56. - get paper here
  • Vogt, Theodor 1922. Zur Reptilien- und Amphibienfauna Südchinas. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 88A (10): 135-146
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
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