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Paroedura hordiesi GLAW, RÖSLER, INEICH, GEHRING, KÖHLER & VENCES, 2014

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Higher TaxaGekkonidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesHordies’ Ground Gecko 
SynonymParoedura hordiesi GLAW, RÖSLER, INEICH, GEHRING, KÖHLER & VENCES 2014
Paroedura homalorhinus — HENKEL & SCHMIDT 1995
Paroedura karstophila — GLAW et al. 2001
Paroedura sp. “Montagne des Français” — GLAW & VENCES 2007
Paroedura sp. — D’CRUZE et al. 2007
Paroedura aff. karstophila — SCHÖNECKER 2008
Paroedura cf. karstophila — MEGSON et al. 2009 
DistributionMadagascar (Antsiranana)

Type locality: Montagne des Français (12°19‘34“S, 49°20‘09“E, 334 m above sea level), Antsiranana Province, north Madagascar  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype. ZSM 342/2004 (field number FGZC 639), adult male with (broken) original tail and everted hemipenes, collected on 18 February 2004 by F. Glaw, M. Puente and R. Randrianiaina. GenBank accession numbers for sequences of the holotype (Jackman et al. 2008): EF536213 (ND2), EF536239 (ND4), EF536165 (RAG1) and EF536189 (PDC).
Paratypes. All paratypes were collected in the “tsingy” limestone massif at Montagne des Français, Antsiranana province, north Madagascar. Specimens were collected on the tsingy outcrops along the way between the Hotel “Kings Lodge” (12°18’44,8’’S, 49°20’22,6’’E, 10 m a.s.l.) and the remains of the French Fort (12°19’34’’S, 49°20’09’’E, 334 m), except where other locality information and coordinates are given in the following: UAD- BA uncatalogued (FG/MV 2000-317), sex unknown, and ZSM 531/2000 (FG/MV 2000-316), adult male with everted hemipenes, both collected on 14 March 2000 by F. Glaw, K. Glaw and M. Vences; ZSM 532/2000 (no field number), adult female, collected on 21 March 2000 by F. Glaw and K. Glaw; ZSM 1108/2003 (no field number), adult female, collected on ca. 20 February 2003 by F. Glaw and R. D. Randrianiaina; ZSM 337/2004 (FGZC 634), subadult, and ZSM 338/2004 (FGZC 635), subadult, both collected at 12°19‘34“S, 49°20‘09“E, 334 m a.s.l., on 23 February 2004 by F. Glaw, M. Puente and R. D. Randrianiaina; ZSM 339/2004 (FGZC 636), adult female, ZSM 340/2004 (FGZC 637), adult female, ZSM 341/2004 (FGZC 638), adult female [original tail broken], all three with same data as holotype; ZSM 343/2004 (FGZC 640), adult male without tail, and ZSM 350/2004 (FGZC 647), adult female, both without reliable locality and collection data, but most likely with same data as holotype; UADBA uncatalogued (FGZC 612), sex unknown, collected at 12°19‘34“S, 49°20‘09“E, 334 m a.s.l., on 20-28 February 2004 by F. Glaw, M. Puente and R. D. Randrianiaina; ZSM 352/2004 (FGZC 649), adult, and ZSM 353/2004 (FGZC 650), adult female, both collected at 12°19‘34“S, 49°20‘09“E, 334 m a.s.l., on 18–23 February 2004 by F. Glaw, M. Puente and R. D. Randrianiaina; UADBA-R 70183 (FGZC 1109), adult male with everted hemipenes, UADBA-R 70185 (FGZC 1112), male, UADBA-R 70184 (FGZC 1114), adult female, ZSM 2106/2007 (FGZC 1099), juvenile, ZSM 2107/2007 (FGZC 1100), juvenile, ZSM 2113/2007 (FGZC 1115), adult female, all six collected around the remains of the French Fort (12°19’33’’S, 49°20’17’’E), collected on 27 February 2007 by P. Bora, H. Enting, F. Glaw, A. Knoll and J. Köhler; UADBA-R 70281 (FGZC 1659), sex unknown, ZSM 1530/2008 (FGZC 1660), adult female, both collected in the cave between Andavakoera and remains of French Fort, on 16 February 2008 by M. Franzen, F. Glaw, J. Köhler and Z. T. Nagy. 
CommentDiagnosis. Paroedura hordiesi sp. n. is a medium-sized species (SVL up to 58 mm, tail length up to 53 mm), having moderately prominent dorsal tubercles disposed into moderately distinct, and generally regular longitudinal rows and an original tail with no spines.
The new species can be easily attributed to the genus Paroedura based on its nested phylogenetic position within the genus (Jackman et al. 2008) and its morphological similarity to other Paroedura species, especially concerning the ventral structure of their fingers and toes which comprise a pair of squarish terminal adhesive pads. Among Malagasy geckos this terminal toe structure is only found in Paroedura and the related genus Ebenavia (Glaw & Vences, 2007). The latter genus can be easily distinguished from Paroedura by its much narrower and strongly pointed head, its elongated body, and smaller size.

Comparisons. The new species can be distinguished from the 17 other currently recognized Paroedura species (including the three available junior synonyms in the genus) as follows: From P. androyensis, P. bastardi, P . ibityensis, P . lohatsara, P . maingoka, P . picta, and P . vahiny by having the nostril in contact with the rostral scale; from P. gracilis by absence of a raised vertebral ridge on the body and shorter forelimbs which are not extending forward beyond tip of snout; from P. masobe by much smaller size (SVL up to 58 mm versus 107 mm), much smaller eyes with a pigmented iris (versus black iris) and absence of a dorsal row of paired spines on the tail; from the two Comoroan species P. sanctijohannis and P. stellata by slightly smaller size (SVL up to 58 mm versus 68 mm and 62 mm, respectively) and absence of whorls with distinct spiny tubercles of the original tail; from the syntopically distributed P. stumpffi by smaller size (SVL up to 58 mm versus 70 mm) and absence of whorls with distinct spiny tubercles of the original tail; from P. tanjaka by much smaller size (SVL up to 58 mm versus 102 mm) and absence of whorls with distinct spiny tubercles of the original tail; from P. vazimba by larger size (SVL up to 58 mm versus 49 mm) and absence of whorls with distinct spines of the original tail; from P. oviceps from its type locality Nosy Be by smaller size (SVL up to 58 mm versus 69 mm) and rather regularly arranged tubercle rows on the back (versus rather irregular rows of tubercles); from P. karstophila by the absence of whorls with distinct spiny tubercles of the original tail (and by a smoother regenerated tail, see Nussbaum and Raxworthy 2000) and by colouration (see Fig. 2 versus Fig. 5); and from its close relative P. homalorhina (Jackman et al. 2008) by shorter limbs (finger tips reach the anterior margin of eye versus snout tip when forelimbs are adpressed along the body), slightly smaller size (SVL up to 58 mm versus 65 mm, see Table 2), distinct and generally regularly arranged tubercles rows on the back (versus less distinct and less regular rows), and a more slender habitus (see Fig. 2 versus Fig. 5). In addition, Paroedura hordiesi can be easily distinguished from most other Paroedura species (P. androyensis, P. bastardi, P. gracilis, P. ibityensis, P. lohatsara, P . maingoka, P . masobe, P . oviceps, P . picta, P . sanctijohannis, P . stellata, P . stumpffi, P . tanjaka, P . vahiny and P. vazimba) by adult colouration in life (see colour photographs in Glaw and Vences 2007, Schönecker 2008, Hawlitschek and Glaw 2013) and from P. androyensis, P. bastardi, P. gracilis, P. homalorhina, P . ibityensis, P . lohatsara, P . maingoka, P . masobe, P . picta, P . sanctijohannis, P . stellata, P . stumpffi, P . tanjaka, and P. vazimba by juvenile colouration (Glaw and Vences 2007, Schönecker 2008, Hawlitschek and Glaw 2013, FG pers. obs.; juvenile colouration of the other species still unknown). Genetically, P. hordiesi can be distinguished from all other species in the genus by its molecular differentiation in mitochondrial and nuclear genes (Jackman et al. 2008, Nagy et al. 2012, Hawlitschek and Glaw 2013, Fig. 1) except for P. vahiny for which DNA sequences are not yet available. 
EtymologyThe specific name is dedicated to Freddy Hordies, in recognition of his support for biodiversity research and conservation through the BIOPAT initiative. 
References
  • D'Cruze, Neil; Jeremy Sabel, Katie Green, Jeffrey Dawson, Carlie Gardner, Janine Robinson, Georgina Starkie, Miguel Vences, and Frank Glaw. 2007. The First Comprehensive Survey of Amphibians and Reptiles at Montagne des Francais, Madagascar. Herp. Cons. Biol. 2 (2): 87-99 - get paper here
  • Glaw ,F. & Vences, M. 2007. A field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Madagascar. 3rd edition. Vences and Glaw Verlag, Cologne, 496 pp.
  • Glaw, F., M. Vences & K. Schmidt 2001. A new species of Paroedura Günther from northern Madagascar (Reptilia, Squamata, Gekkonidae). Spixiana 24 (3): 249-256 - get paper here
  • Glaw, Frank; Herbert Rösler, Ivan Ineich, Philip-Sebastian Gehring, Jörn Köhler, Miguel Vences 2014. A new species of nocturnal gecko (Paroedura) from karstic limestone in northern Madagascar. Zoosystematics and Evolution 90(2): 249-259; doi: 10.3897/zse.90.8705 - get paper here
  • Henkel, F.H.; Schmidt, W. 1995. Amphibien und Reptilien Madagascars. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart : 1-312
  • Megson, Steven; Polly Mitchell, Jörn Köhler, Charles Marsh, Michael Franzen, Frank Glaw, Neil D’Cruze 2009. A comprehensive survey of amphibians and reptiles in the extreme north of Madagascar. Herpetology Notes 2: 31- 44 - get paper here
  • Schönecker, P. 2017. Die madagassischen Großkopfgeckos der Gattung Paroedura Reptilia (Münster) 22 (125): 1423
  • Schönecker, Patrick 2008. Geckos of Madagascar, the Seychelles, Comoros and Mascarenes. Terralog 12, 144 pp.
 
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