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Parvoscincus leucospilos (PETERS, 1872)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesWhite-spotted Sphenomorphus 
SynonymLygosoma (Hinulia) leucospilos PETERS 1872: 684
Tropidophorus leucospilos — BOULENGER 1887: 260
Tropidophorus leucospilos — TAYLOR 1922: 235
Sphenomorphus leucospilos - BROWN & ALCALA 1980: 172
Sphenomorphus leucospilos — BAUER et al. 1995: 64
Sphenomorphus leucospilos — BROWN et al. 2000
Sphenomorphus leucospilos — LINKEM et al. 2010
Parvoscincus leucospilos — LINKEM, DIESMOS & BROWN 2011 
DistributionPhilippines (Luzon)

Type locality: Luzon, by implication.  
Reproduction 
TypesLectotype: ZMB 7467; Syntypes: ZMB 7467, CAS 64232 
CommentSynonymy: Parvoscincus leucospilos (s.l.) has been split up into several species by Siler et al. 2014.

Diagnosis. Parvoscincus leucospilos can be distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) body size medium (SVL 42.6–54.4 mm); (2) Toe-IV lamellae 15–17; () supralabials six or seven; (4) infralabials 6–9; (5) midbody scale rows 0–4; (6) paravertebral scale rows 61–67; (7) prefrontals in medial contact; (8) prefrontals contact first supraocular; (9) frontoparietals fused; (10) head pigmentation heavily mottled; (11) upper arm pigmentation absent; (12) subcaudal pigmentation absent; (1) dorsal white spots large, well- defined; (14) dorsal white bands 9–1; (15) lateral body coloration bright reddish-orange; (16) tail dorsolaterally compressed; and (17) semi-aquatic (Tables 2, ) (Siler et al. 2014).

Comparisons. Parvoscincus leucospilos most closely resembles P. duwendorum, P. manananggalae, and P. tikbalangi. However, P. leucospilos differs from these three taxa by having head pigmentation heavily mottled (vs. moderately mottled; Figs. 4, 5), and by the absence (vs. presence) of dark pigmentation on the upper arm surface. Parvoscincus leucospilos further differs from P. duwendorum and P. manananggalae by having prefrontals in medial contact (vs. separated); from P. duwendorum and P. tikbalangi by having dorsal white spots large and well-defined (vs. faint); from P. manananggalae and P. tikbalangi by the presence of bright reddish-orange lateral coloration (vs. absence of coloration [P. manananggalae], presence, reduced, tan [P. tikbalangi]); from P. duwendorum by having a greater number of Toe-IV lamellae (15–17 vs. 12), a greater number of paravertebral scale rows (61–67 vs. 60), a greater number of midbody scale rows (0–4 vs. 26), a tendency towards a greater number of longitudinal ventral scale rows (41–47 vs. 41), and fewer dorsal white bands (9–1 vs. 15); from P. manananggalae by the absence of subcaudal dark pigmentation (vs. presence); and from P. tikbalangi by having a tendency towards a greater number of paravertebral scale rows (61–67 vs. 58–6) and a tendency towards a greater number of midbody scale rows (0–4 vs. 28–2). (Siler et al. 2014). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet “leucospilos” apparently refers to the distinctive coloration of this species, consisiting of prominent rows of white (from the Latin adjective “leucos”) spots (Latin, noun, “spilos”) down the dorsal surfaces of the body. 
References
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Brown, R.M. et al. 2010. Species boundaries in Philippine montane forest skinks (Genus Sphenomorphus): three new species from the mountains of Luzon and clarification of the status of the poorly known S. beyeri, S. knollmanae, and S. laterimaculatus. Scient. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas (42): 1-27
  • Brown, WC. & A.C. ALCALA 1980. Philippine Lizards of the family Scincidae. Silliman Univ. Nat. Sci., Dumaguete City, Mon., Ser. 2: i-xi + 1-246.
  • Brown,R.M. & Ferner,J.W. & Sison,R.V. 1995. Rediscovery and redescription of Sphenomorphus beyeri Taylor (Reptilia: Lacertilia: Scincidae) from the Zambales Mountains of Luzon, Philippines. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 108 (1): 6-17 - get paper here
  • Brown,R.M.; McGuire, J.A.; Ferner,J.W.; Icarangal Jr., N. & Kennedy, R.S. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Luzon island, II: preliminary report on the herptofauna of Aurora Memorial national Park, Philippines. Hamadryad 25 (2): 175-195 - get paper here
  • Brown; Rafe; Cameron Siler, Carl Oliveros, Luke Welton, Ashley Rock, John Swab, Merlijn Van Weerd, Jonah van Beijnen, Dominic Rodriguez, Edmund Jose, Arvin Diesmos 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mou ntain Range. ZooKeys 266 (2013) Special Issue: 1-120<br />doi: 10.3897/zookeys.266.3982 - get paper here
  • Linkem, C.W.; Diesmos, A.C.; Brown, R.M. 2010. A NEW SPECIES OF SCINCID LIZARD (GENUS SPHENOMORPHUS) FROM PALAWAN ISLAND, PHILIPPINES. Herpetologica 66 (1): 67–79 - get paper here
  • Linkem, Charles W.; Arvin C. Diesmos, Rafe M. Brown 2011. Molecular systematics of the Philippine forest skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Sphenomorphus): testing morphological hypotheses of interspecific relationships. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 1217–1243
  • MCLEOD, David S.; Cameron D. SILER, Arvin C. DIESMOS, Mae L. DIESMOS, Vhon S. GARCIA, Angela O. ARKONCEO, Kelvin L. BALAQUIT, Charlene C. UY, Mariden M. VILLASERAN, Earle C. YARRA, Rafe M. BROWN 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, V: The Herpetofauna of Angat Dam Watershed, Bulacan Province, Luzon Island, Philippines. Asian Herpetological Research 2 (4): 177–198 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1872. Über eine neue von Hrn. Dr. A. B. Meyer auf Luzon entdeckte Art von Eidechsen (Lygosoma (Hinulia) leucospilos) und eine von demselben in Nordcelebes gefundene neue Schlangengattung (Allophis nigricaudus). Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1872 (August): 684-687 - get paper here
  • Siler, C.D.; L.J. Welton; J.M. Siler; J. Brown; A. Bucol; A.C. Diesmos; R. Brown. 2011. Amphibians and Reptiles, Luzon Island, Aurora Province and Aurora Memorial National Park, Northern Philippines: New island distribution records. Check List 7 (2):182-195 - get paper here
  • SILER, CAMERON D.; CHARLES W. LINKEM, KERRY COBB, JESSA L. WATTERS, SEAN T. CUMMINGS, ARVIN C. DIESMOS & RAFE M. BROWN 2014. Taxonomic revision of the semi-aquatic skink Parvoscincus leucospilos (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae), with description of three new species. Zootaxa 3847 (3): 388–412 - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1922. The lizards of the Philippine Islands. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bureau of Science, Government of the Philippine Islands, Manila, Publication no. 17: 269 pp. - get paper here
 
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