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Parvoscincus manananggalae SILER, LINKEM, COBB, WATTERS, CUMMINGS, DIESMOS & BROWN, 2014

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Aurora Aquatic Skink 
SynonymParvoscincus manananggalae SILER, LINKEM, COBB, WATTERS, CUMMINGS, DIESMOS & BROWN 2014
Parvoscincus leucospilos — LINKEM et al. 2011 (part) 
DistributionPhilippines (Luzon)

Type locality: rocks near a rapid flowing stream during the day on 21 June 2009, in Barangay Lipimental, Municipality of San Luis, Aurora Province, Luzon Island, Philippines (N: 15.653; E: 121.507; WGS-84; 515 m in elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous (phylogenetic imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: PNM 9794 (RMB Field No. 10719, formerly KU 323928), adult male, collected by RMB, CDS, L. Welton. Paratypes. KU 323920–27, 323929–30 collected 21 June 2009; CMNH 5792 (from Brown et al. 2000). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Parvoscincus manananggalae can be distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) body size medium (SVL 47.3–55.9 mm); (2) Toe-IV lamellae 17; (3) supralabials seven; (4) infralabials six or seven; (5) midbody scale rows 32–33; (6) paravertebral scale rows 61–69; (7) prefrontals separated; (8) prefrontals contact first supraocular; (9) frontoparietals fused; (10) head pigmentation moderately mottled; (11) upper arm pigmentation present, patchy; (12) cloacal scale dark pigmentation present; (13) subcaudal pigmentation present; (14) dorsal white spots large, well-defined; (15) dorsal white bands 9–12; (16) bright lateral body coloration absent; (17) tail dorsolaterally compressed; and (18) semi-aquatic (Tables 2, 3 in Siler et al. 2014).

Comparisons. Characters distinguishing Parvoscincus manananggalae from all species of Parvoscincus are summarized in Tables 2 and 3 in Siler et al. 2014. Parvoscincus manananggalae most closely resembles P. duwendorum, P. leucospilos, and P. tikbalangi. However, P. manananggalae differs from these three taxa by the presence of subcaudal dark pigmentation (vs. absence). Parvoscincus manananggalae further differs from P. duwendorum and P. tikbalangi by having dorsal white spots large and well-defined (vs. faint), Toe-IV lamellae 17 (vs. 12 [P. duwendorum], 14–16 [P. tikbalangi]); from P. leucospilos and P. tikbalangi by the absence of bright lateral coloration (vs. presence and bright reddish-orange [P. leucospilos], presence, reduced, tan [P. tikbalangi]); from P. duwendorum by having a greater number of paravertebral scale rows (61–69 vs. 60), a greater number of longitudinal ventral scale rows (43–49 vs. 41), a greater number of midbody scale rows (32–33 vs. 26), dorsal white bands 9–12 (vs. 15), and the presence of cloacal scale dark pigmentation (vs. absence); from P. leucospilos by having prefrontals separated (vs. in medial contact), head pigmentation moderately mottled (vs. heavily mottled), and the presence of dark pigmentation on the upper arm surface (vs. absence); and from P. tikbalangi by having a tendency towards a greater number of midbody scale rows (32–33 vs. 28–32) and fewer paravertebral scale rows (61–69 vs. 58–63), and the presence of contact between prefrontal and first supraocular scales (vs. absence). (Siler et al. 2014). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a feminine noun, formed from the name “Manananggal,” a female, blood sucking, vampire-like creature who flies like a bat at night to hunt humans, after separating from her lower extremities (derived from the Tagalog word Tanggal, to separate). Manananggal can be repelled by garlic and even killed by heavily salting her legs once she has left to hunt for the night. 
  • Gojo-Cruz, Paul Henric P. and Leticia E. Afuang 2018. The Zoogeographic Significance of Caraballo Mountain Range, Luzon Island, Philippines With Focus on the Biogeography of Luzon’s Herpetofauna. Philippine Journal of Science 147 (3): 393-409 - get paper here
  • GOJO-CRUZ, Paul Henric P.; Leticia E. AFUANG, Juan Carlos T. GONZALEZ and William SM. GRUEZO 2018. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines: the Herpetofauna of Pantabangan-Carranglan Watershed, Nueva Ecija Province, Caraballo Mountain Range. Asian Herpetological Research 9(4): 201–223 - get paper here
  • Siler, Cameron D.; CHARLES W. LINKEM, KERRY COBB, JESSA L. WATTERS, SEAN T. CUMMINGS, ARVIN C. DIESMOS & RAFE M. BROWN 2014. Taxonomic revision of the semi-aquatic skink Parvoscincus leucospilos (Reptilia: Squamata: Scincidae), with description of three new species. Zootaxa 3847 (3): 388–412 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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