You are here » home advanced search search results Phalotris lemniscatus

Phalotris lemniscatus (DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL, 1854)

IUCN Red List - Phalotris lemniscatus - Least Concern, LC

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Phalotris lemniscatus?

Add your own observation of
Phalotris lemniscatus »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesPhalotris lemniscatus lemniscatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854
Phalotris lemniscatus iheringi (STRAUCH 1884)
Phalotris lemniscatus trilineatus (BOULENGER 1889) 
Common NamesE: Dumeril's Diadem Snake
Portuguese: Cabeça-Preta, Cabeça-Preta-da-Areia, Cabeça-Preta-da-Praia, Cabeça-Preta-Meridional, Cabeça-Preta-Pampeana 
SynonymElapomorphus lemniscatus lemniscatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854: 840
Elapomorphus lemniscatus DUMÉRIL, BIBRON & DUMÉRIL 1854
Phalotris lemniscatus — COPE 1862
Elapomorphus lemniscatus — STRAUCH 1884: 567
Phalotris melanopleurus COPE 1885: 189 (part.)
Elapomorphus lemniscatus — AMARAL 1929 (part.)
Elapomorphus bilineatus lemniscatus — LEMA 1970
Elapomorphus bilineatus lemniscatus — LEMA 1979
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) lemniscatus lemniscatus — LEMA 1984
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) lemniscatus divittatus LEMA 1984
Elapomorphus lemniscatus lemniscatus — WILLIAMS & FRANCINI 1991
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) lemniscatus lemniscatus — CEI 1993
Phalotris lemniscatus divittatus — DE LEMA 1994
Phalotris divittatus — DE LEMA 2002
Phalotris lemniscatus — DE LEMA 2002
Phalotris lemniscatus — GRACA SALOMAO et al. 2003
Phalotris lemniscatus — JANSEN & KÖHLER 2008
Phalotris lemniscatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 547

Phalotris lemniscatus iheringi (STRAUCH 1884)
Elapomorphus iheringi STRAUCH 1884: 571
Phalotris melanopleurus COPE 1885 (part.)
Elapomorphus lemniscatus — BOULENGER 1896 (part.)
Elapomorphus bilineatus reticulatus — LEMA 1970
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) lemniscatus iheringi — LEMA 1984
Elapomorphus lemniscatus iheringi — WILLIAMS & FRANCINI 1991
Elapomorphus (Phalotris) lemniscatus iheringi — CEI 1993
Phalotris lemniscatus iheringi — DE LEMA 1994
Phalotris iheringi — DE LEMA 2002

Phalotris lemniscatus trilineatus (BOULENGER 1889)
Elapomorphus trilineatus BOULENGER 1889: 265
Phalotris lemniscatus trilineatus
Phalotris trilineatus — DE LEMA 2002
Phalotris trilineatus — DE LEMA 2011 
DistributionArgentina (Corrientes, Entre Ríos)

Type locality: South America.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 3668; BMNH 1946.1.2.90 is listed as type in the BMNH online catalog
Syntypes: ANSP 11213-14; Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul; [melanopleurus]
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.2.90, collected by H. von Ihering [trilineatus]
Holotype: MCN 3784 [divittatus]
Holotype: ZISP ? [iheringi]
Holotype: MNHN-RA (dry, dehydrated skin) [bilineatus]
Holotype: MSNG 30651 (Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova) [spegazzinii]
Holotype: USNM 48939 [suspectus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Phalotris lemniscatus can be distinguished from all congeners in the P. bilineatus group by a unique combination of the following characters: head dorsally black, with rostral and first supralabials lighter, and ventrally almost white (vs. head totally black in P. illustrator and P. spegazzinii); white nuchal collar present, 2–3 dorsal scales width, followed by a narrow black ring, one scale width (vs. nuchal collar absent in P. bilineatus, P. illustrator and P. spegazzinii); ventral scales almost black with the lateral and posterior edge white (vs. venter almost uniformly black in P. illustrator); flanks of the body with a black stripe on 3–5th dorsal rows, 1–2nd dorsal rows, white (vs. wider black lateral stripe 3–4 scales wide in P. illustrator, P. reticulatus and P. spegazzinii); cloacal black ring present (absent in P. multipunctatus); rostral well separated from the prefrontal (vs. rostral contacting the prefrontal or slightly separated in P. bilineatus). Additionally, P. lemniscatus have a well-defined vertebral stripe (vs. vertebral stripe absent or faded in other species, except P. illustrator, P. spegazzini and P. reticulatus). (Scrocchi et al. 2022). 

Synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and CEI 1993. Elapomorphus lemniscatus has been synonymized with E. bilineatus by PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. All subspecies of E. lemniscatus have been elevated to species status by DE LEMA who also considers them as members of Phalotris. Wallach et al. 2014 list Elapomorphus trilineatus as a synonym of Phalotris lemniscatus. Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002 list Phalotris lemniscatus divittatus as synonym of Phalotris reticulatus, without further comment; Carreira 2005 and Wallach et al. 2014 list it as synonym of P. lemniscatus.
Elapomorphus spegazzinii and other species have been considered subspecies or synonyms of Phalotris (Elapomorphus) bilineatus (see e.g. PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970). De LEMA (1979) synonymizes Elapomorphus bilineatus with E. lemniscatus. CARREIRA et al. (2005) also list Phalotris bilineatus as synonym of Phalotris lemniscatus. Elapomorphus reticulatus PETERS 1860: 518 has been removed from the synonymy of E. bilineatus (by FERRAREZZI 1993). “Phalotris bilineatus" is a name based on a hybrid specimen between Phalotris suspectus x Phalotris spegazzinii (de Lema, 1984). GIRAUDO & SCROCCHI 2002 and more recently WALLACH et al. 2014: 535 list this species (incl. suspectus) as synonym of Ph. bilineatus. LEMA 2002 considered them as valid. COSTA & BERNILS 2015 consider bilineatus as a synonym of P. lemniscatus (following Lema 1979), hence Nogueira et al. 2019 do not list it in their Atlas either.

Distribution: See map in Scorcchi et al. 2002: 51 (Fig. 3). Reports from Paraguay (e.g. fide Paul Smith, pers. comm., 27 Apr 2014) represent other species now resurrected from P. lemniscatus. Probably in Uruguay and S Brazil as the species occurs near the borders in Argentina.

Subspecies: the status of Phalotris lemniscatus iheringi (STRAUCH 1884) remains questionable (C. Nogueira, pers. comm. 30 Sep 2016).

NCBI taxID: 1260395 [bilineatus] 
  • Abegg, Arthur Diesel; Omar Machado Entiauspe-Neto, Thales de Lema 2015. First record of albinism in the Elapomorphini tribe (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Herpetology Notes 8: 503-505 - get paper here
  • Amaral, A. do 1924. New genus and species of South American snakes contained in the United States National Museum. J. Washington Acad. Sci. 14: 200-202 - get paper here
  • Avila, Fernanda de; Juliano Oliveira, Mateus de Oliveira, Marcio Borges-Martins, Victor Hugo Valiati, Alexandro Tozetti 2019. Does color polymorphism affect the predation risk on Phalotris lemniscatus (Duméril, Bibron and Duméril, 1854) (Serpentes, Dipsadidae)? Acta Herpetologica 14 (1): 57-63 - get paper here
  • Bérnils, R.S.; Batista, M.A. & Bertelli, P.W. 2001. Cobras e lagartos do Vale: levantamento das espécies de Squamata (Reptilia, Lepidosauria) da Bacia do Rio Itajai, Santa Catarina, Brasil. Rev. Est. Ambientais (Blumenau) 3 (1): 69-79
  • Borteiro, C., Abegg, A. D., Oda, F. H., Cardozo, D., Kolenc, F., Etchandy, I., ... & Baldo, D. 2021. Aberrant colouration in wild snakes: case study in Neotropical taxa and a review of terminology. Salamandra 57 (1): 124-138 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Remarks on the variation of Elapomorphus lemniscatus. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 15: 321-323 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1889. Description of a new snake and two new fishes obtained by Dr. H. von Ihering in Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 4: 265-267 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1913. Descriptions of a new lizard and a new snake from South America. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova (3) 6: 49-50 - get paper here
  • Cabral, Hugo and Pier Cacciali 2015. A New Species of Phalotris (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from the Paraguayan Chaco. Herpetologica 72 (1): 72-77. - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Carreira Vidal, Santiago 2002. Alimentación de los ofidios de Uruguay. Asoc. Herp. Esp., Monograf. Herp. 6, 127 pp. - get paper here
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Cei, J. M. 1993. Reptiles del noroeste, nordeste y este de la Argentina. Museo Regionale Sci. Naturale Torino, Monografie 14: 1-949
  • Cope, E.D. 1885. Twelfth contribution to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 22: 167-194 [1884] - get paper here
  • de Lema, Thales. 2011. Phalotris trilineatus (littoral blackhead) ophiophagy. Herpetological Review 42 (3): 368 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Entiauspe-Neto, Omar Machado; Tângela Denise Perleberg and Marco Antonio de Freitas 2016. Herpetofauna from an urban Pampa fragment in southern Brazil: composition, structure and conservation. Check List 12(5): 1964 - get paper here
  • Esteves, Geiza Pontes 2011. Filogenia das serpentes do grupo de Phalotris lemniscatus (Serpentes, Colubridae) baseada em marcadores moleculares. BS thesis, UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL INSTITUTO DE BIOCIÊNCIAS - get paper here
  • Ferrarezzi H. 1993. Nota sobre o genero Phalotris com revisao do grupo nasutus e descricao de tres novas especies (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 55 (SUPPL. 1): 21-38. - get paper here
  • França, R. C., França, F. G., Rödder, D., & Solé, M. 2022. Historical collection of snakes from Brazil by herpetologist and biogeographer Paul Müller (1940–2010), deposited at the Zoological Research Museum Alexander Koenig, Germany. Bonn zoological Bulletin 71 (1): 41–49 - get paper here
  • Freiberg, M.A. 1982. Snakes of South America. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 189 pp. - get paper here
  • Giraudo, A. R., and G. J. Scrocchi 2002. Argentinian Snakes: An Annotated Checklist. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (132): 1-53 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Graca Salomão, M. da et al. 2003. Colubrid snakebite: a public health problem in Brazil. Herpetological Review 34 (4): 307-312 - get paper here
  • Jan, G. 1865. Iconographie générale des ophidiens. 14. Livraison. [Elapomorphus d’Orbignyi, Coronella getulus var. Sayi]. J.B. Bailière et Fils, Paris - get paper here
  • Jansen, M; Kohler, G 2008. A new species of Phalotris from the eastern lowlands of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae). Senckenbergiana Biologica 88 (1): 103-110
  • Kolb, P; Mmoser, C F; Oliveira, R B & Tozetti, A M 2018. Phalotris lemniscatus (Dumeril’s Diadem Snake) Predation. Herpetological Review 49 (4): 761 - get paper here
  • Lema, T. de 1982. Fauna de serpentes da província pampeana e inter- relações com as províncias limítrofes. Mem. Inst. Butantan 46: 173-182 - get paper here
  • Lema, Th. de 1970. Sobre o status de Elapomorphus bilineatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854, curiosa serpente subterranea. Iheringia, Ser. Zool. (38): 89-118
  • Lema, Th. de 1978. O status de Elapomorphus suspectus Amaral 1924. (Ophidia: Colubridae). Comunicações do Museu de Ciências DA PUCRGS No. 16/17: 1-16
  • Lema, Th. de 1979. Sobre a validade dos nomes Elapomorphus bilineatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854 e E. lemniscatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril, 1854 (Ophidia: Colubridae). Iheringia, Ser. Zool. (54): 77-81
  • Lema, Th. de 1984. Sobre o genero Elapomorphus Wiegmann, 1843 (Serpentes, Colubridae, Elapomorphinae). Iheringia, Ser. Zool. 64: 53-86
  • Lema, Th. de 1991. Anomalias na escamacao de duas especies de Elapomorphus da America do Sul meridional (Serpentes: Colubridae: Elapomorphindae). Acta Biologica Leopoldensia 12 (2): 339-358 [1990]
  • Lema, Th. de 1994. Lista comentada dos répteis occorentes nor Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Comun. Mus. Cienc. Tecnol. PUCRS, Sér. Zool., Porto Alegre 7: 41-150
  • Leynaud, Gerardo C. and Enrique H. Bucher 1999. La fauna de serpientes del Chaco Sudamericano: diversidad, distribución geografica y estado de conservación. Academia Nacional de Ciencias Miscelanea (98):1-46
  • Minoli I, Morando M, Avila LJ 2015. Reptiles of Chubut province, Argentina: richness, diversity, conservation status and geographic distribution maps. ZooKeys 498: 103-126. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.498.7476 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Outeiral, Arlete B.; Rafael L. Balestrin, Lize H. Cappellari, Thales de Lema, Vanda Lúcia Ferreira 2018. Snake assemblage from Serra do Sudeste, Pampa Biome in Southern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 11: 733-745 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1860. Drei neue Schlangen des k. zoologischen Museums aus America und Bemerkungen über die generelle Unterscheidung von anderen bereits bekannten Arten. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1860 (October): 517-521 - get paper here
  • Prigioni, C.; C. Borteiro; F. Kolenc. 2011. Amphibia and Reptilia, Quebrada de los Cuervos, Departamento de Treinta y Tres, Uruguay. Check List 7 (6): 763-767 - get paper here
  • Puorto G. Ferrarezzi H. 1993. Uma nova especie de Phalotris Cope, 1862, com comentarios sobre o grupo Bilineatus (Serpentes: Colubridae: Xenodontinae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 55 (SUPPL. 1): 39-46. - get paper here
  • Schaefer, E.F. 1998. Phalotris lemniscatus. Argentina: Corrientes. Herpetological Review 29 (3): 178 - get paper here
  • Scrocchi, G. J., Giraudo, A. R., & Nenda, S. J. 2022. Taxonomic notes on the Phalotris bilineatus group (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Elapomorphini), with the description of a new species from northwestern Argentina. Cuadernos de Herpetología 36 (1): 47-63 - get paper here
  • Scrocchi, G.J.; Moreta, J.C. & Kretzschmar, S. 2006. Serpientes del Noroeste Argento [Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Catamarca, La Rioja, Santiago del Estero]. Fundación Miguel Lillo, Tucumán, 178 pp.
  • Scrocchi, Gustavo J.; Cristian S. Abdala,Javier Nori, Hussam Zaher 2010. Reptiles de la provincia de Río Negro, Argentina. Fondo Ed. Rionegrino, 249 pp.
  • Strauch,A. 1884. Bemerkungen über die Schlangengattung Elapomorphus aus der Familie der Calamariden. 2nd. Ed. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. Petersbourg 29: 541-590 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

As link to this species use URL address:

without field 'search_param'. Field 'search_param' is used for browsing search result.

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator