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Phoenicolacerta laevis (GRAY, 1838)

IUCN Red List - Phoenicolacerta laevis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Lacertinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Lebanon Lizard
G: Syrische Eidechse 
SynonymLacerta laevis GRAY 1838: 279
Lacerta judaica CAMERANO 1877
Lacerta judaica — BOETTGER 1880
Lacerta laevis laevis — ESTERBAUER 1985
Lacerta laevis — SELIGMANN 2000
Archaeolacerta laevis — SINDACO et al. 2000
Lacerta laevis — BISCHOFF 2005
Phoenicolacerta laevis — ARNOLD et al. 2007
Lacerta (Phoenicolacerta) laevis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Phoenicolacerta laevis — TAMAR et al. 2015
Phoenicolacerta laevis — BAR et al. 2021 
DistributionS Turkey (middle Taurus Mts., Hatay region), NW Syria, Lebanon, Israel, W Jordan

Type locality: not given  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.9.3.2
Type: MSNTO [judaica] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Lizards possessing the following features found only in a minority of other Lacertini: pterygoid teeth sometimes present, sternal fontanelle occasionally weakly heart-shaped, occipital scale often broad; five upper labial scales in front of subocular, apical sections of hemipenial lobes longer than basal ones, their sulcal lips large. Other more widely distributed features include: head and body not or moderately depressed, seven to eleven premaxillary teeth in adults, usual number of presacral vertebrae 26 in males, inscriptional ribs frequently absent, tail not brightly coloured in hatchlings; hemipenial microornamentation of crownshaped tubercles (from Arnold et al. 2007: 51). 
CommentMany authors have not distinguished between L. kulzeri and L. laevis.

Type Species: Lacerta laevis Gray, 1838 is the type species of the genus Phoenicolacerta ARNOLD et al. 2007.

Distribution: see Bar et al. 2021 for a map. 
  • Al-Quran, S. 2009. The Herpetofauna of the Southern Jordan. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 6 (4): 385-391 [this journal has a dubious record, see]
  • Baier, F.; Sparrow, D.J. & Wiedl, H.J. 2009. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Cyprus. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt/M., ca. 370 pp.
  • Bar, A., Haimovitch, G. and Meiri, S. 2021. Field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Israel. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt Am Main. ISBN 9783-89973-120-0 - get paper here
  • Bar, Aviad and Guy Haimovitch 2012. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Israel. Pazbar LTD, 246 pp. - get paper here
  • Bird, C. G. 1936. The distribution of reptiles and amphibians in Asiatic Turkey with notes on a collection from the Vilayets of Adana, Gaziantep and Malatya. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (10) 18: 257-281. - get paper here
  • Bischoff, W. 2005. Die echten Eidechsen der Familie Lacertidae - eine Übersicht. Draco 5 (21): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Bischoff, W. 2007. Auf der Suche nach Gebirgseidechsen in drei Erdteilen. Draco 7 (27): 54-73 - get paper here
  • BISCHOFF, W. 2014. Phoenicolacerta laevis (GRAY, 1838) – Syrische Eidechse. Die Eidechse 25 (3): 89-95 - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. [as O. Böttger] 1880. Die Reptilien und Amphibien von Syrien, Palaestina und Cypern. Ber. Senckenb. Naturforsch. Ges., Frankfurt/M., 1879-1880: 132-219 - get paper here
  • Bosch, H A J in den 2002. Informal synonymy of the Lacerta kulzeri group (Lacertidae, Reptilia). Podarcis 3 (1): 2-16 - get paper here
  • Bosch, HA in den; Odierna G, Aprea G, Barucca M, Canapa A, Capriglione T, Olmo E. 2003. Karyological and genetic variation in Middle Eastern lacertid lizards, Lacerta laevis and the Lacerta kulzeri complex: a case of chromosomal allopatric speciation. Chromosome Res. 2003;11(2):165-78
  • Boulenger, George A. 1881. On the lizards of the genera Lacerta and Acanthodactylus. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1881: 739-747 - get paper here
  • Bozkurt, E., Ürker, O., & Elverici, M. 2022. An assessment of the herpetofauna of the Oriental Sweetgum forests in southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. Phyllomedusa 21(2): 125-139 - get paper here
  • Bruekers, Jaco 2010. Erstnachweis der Syrischen Eidechse (Phoenicolacerta laevis) in der West-Türkei. Die Eidechse 21 (3): 75-80 - get paper here
  • Budak,Abidin & Göcmen, Bayram. 1995. Kuzey Kibris Lacerta laevis Gray, 1838 (Sauria: Lacertidae) Örnekleri Hakkinda . Tr. J. of Zoology 19: 1-15 - get paper here
  • Bülbül, U., Koç-Gür, H., Albayrak, M., Bayrak, M. O., & Özkan, H. 2021. Body Size and Age Structure of the Lebanon Lizard Phoenicolacerta laevis (Gray, 1838)(Reptilia: Lacertidae) in a Lowland Turkish Population. Acta Zool. Bulg., 73 (2): 225-231 - get paper here
  • Disi, A.M.; Modry, D.; Necas, P. & Rifai, L. 2001. Amphibians and reptiles of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 408 pp.
  • Edelman, Martin; Frank, Ronald 2005. Herpetologische en andere interessante waarnemingen in Turkije. Lacerta 63 (4): 166-172 - get paper here
  • Esterbauer, H. 1985. Zur Herpetofauna Südwestsyriens. Herpetofauna 7 (38): 23-34 - get paper here
  • FRANKEN, M. 2018. Fotografischer Beleg für Phoenicolacerta laevis in Anaklia, Georgien.. Die Eidechse 29 (3): 94-95 - get paper here
  • Franzen, Michael; Michael Bußmann, Thomas Kordges & Burkhard Thiesmeier 2008. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Südwest-Türkei. Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie (Suppl. 14): 328 pp. - get paper here
  • Frommer, Jürgen 2008. Beobachtungen an den Eidechsen Jordaniens. Die Eidechse 19 (1): 1-13 - get paper here
  • Gebhart, Jürgen 2013. Eidechsen in Israel. Beobachtungen an zwei Phoenicolacerta-Arten. Terraria-Elaphe 2013 (3): 90-92 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, Stephen R. 2013. Phoenicolacerta laevis (Lebanon lizard) reproduction. Herpetological Review 44 (3): 512 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1838. Catalogue of the slender-tongued saurians, with descriptions of many new genera and species. Part 1. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (1) 1: 274-283 - get paper here
  • Handal, Elias N.; Zuhair S. Amr, Mazin B. Qumsiyeh 2016. Some Records of Reptiles from the Palestinian Territories. Russ. J. Herpetol. 23 (4): 261-270 - get paper here
  • Hoofien, J. H. 1995. On three changes in the checklist of the lizards of Israel. Hardun 1995 (6): 9-12; 83-82
  • Hraoui-Bloquet, S.; Sadek, R.A.; Sindaco, R. & Venchi, A. 2002. The herpetofauna of Lebanon: new data on distribution. Zoology in the Middle East 27: 35-46 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Amos Belmaker, Daniel Berkowic, Kesem Kazes, Erez Maza, Guy Bar-Oz and Roi Dor 2019. A checklist of Israeli land vertebrates. Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution - get paper here
  • Qumsiyeh, Mazin 2016. Fauna of Wadi Al-Quff Protected Area: Amphibians, Reptiles and Mammals. Jordan Journal of Natural History (3): 70-79 - get paper here
  • Schmidtler, J. F. & W. BISCHOFF 1999. Revision des levantinischen Lacerta laevis/kulzeri-Komplexes: 1. Die Felseneidechse Lacerta cyanisparsa sp.n. Salamandra 35 (3): 129-146 - get paper here
  • Seligmann, H. 2000. Evolution and ecology of developmental processes and of the resulting morphology: directional asymmetry in hindlimbs of Agamidae and Lacertidae (Reptilia: Lacertilia). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 69: 461–481 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Alberto Venchi, Giuseppe M. Carpaneto, Marco A. Bologna 2000. The Reptiles of Anatolia: a Checklist and Zoogeographical analysis. Biogeographia, 21-2000: 441-554. - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Riccardo Nincheri, Benedetto Lanza 2014. Catalogue of Arabian reptiles in the collections of the “La Specola” Museum, Florence. Scripta Herpetologica. Studies on Amphibians and Reptiles in honour of Benedetto Lanza: pp. 137-164 - get paper here
  • Tamar, Karin; Salvador Carranza, Herman in den Bosch, Roberto Sindaco, Jiri Moravec, Shai Meiri 2015. Hidden relationships and genetic diversity: Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Levantine lizards of the genus Phoenicolacerta (Squamata: Lacertidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 91: 86-97 - get paper here
  • Tarkhnishvili, David; Mariam Gabelaia, Andrei Kandaurov, Alexander Bukhnikashvili and Giorgi Iankoshvili 2017. Isolated population of the Middle Eastern Phoenicolacerta laevis from the Georgian Black Sea Coast, and its genetic closeness to populations from southern Turkey. Zoology in the Middle East 63 (4): 311 - get paper here
  • Tosunoglu, Murat; Bayram Göçmen, Ertan Taskavak and Abidin Budak 1999. A serological comparison of the populations of the Lacerta laevis complex in northern Cyprus and southern Turkey. Zoology of the Middle East 19: 117-122 - get paper here
  • Tosunoglu, Murat; Bayram Göçmen, Mehmet K. Atatür and I. Ethem Çevik 2001. Morphological and serological investigations on Lacerta laevis Gray, 1838 (Sauria: Lacertidae) populations from Anatolia. Zoology of the Middle East 23: 55-60 - get paper here
  • TROIDL, S. & A. TROIDL 2011. Neue Nachweise der Syrischen Eidechse, Phoenicolacerta laevis, an der lykischen Küste zwischen Tekirova und Beldibi (Türkei). Die Eidechse 22 (2): 33-38. - get paper here
  • Troidl, Siegfried and Angelika Troidl 2008. Erster Nachweis der Syrischen Eidechse, Phoenicolacerta laevis, bei Side und Manavgat. Die Eidechse 19 (1): 14-18 - get paper here
  • ÜZÜM, NAZAN; ÇETIN ILGAZ, AZIZ AVCI, KAMIL CANDAN, HABIBE GÜLER & YUSUF KUMLUTAŞ. 2018. Comparison of the body size and age structure of Lebanon lizard, Phoenicolacerta laevis (Gray, 1838) at different altitudes in Turkey. Vertebrate Zoology 68(1): 83–90. - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1936. Reptiles from Mount Troodos, Cyprus. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1936: 655-658 - get paper here
  • Werner, FRANZ 1902. Die Reptilien- und Amphibienfauna von Kleinasien. Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss. (math.-Naturw. Klasse 1) 111: 1057-1121
  • ZAWADZKI, M. 2000. Haltung und Zucht von Lacerta laevis troodica WERNER, 1936. Die Eidechse 11 (2): 55-62 - get paper here
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