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Pholidobolus condor PARRA, SALES-NUNES & TORRES-CARVAJAL, 2020

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Condor cuilanes
S: Cuilanes del Cóndor 
SynonymPholidobolus condor PARRA, SALES-NUNES & TORRES-CARVAJAL 2020 
DistributionEcuador (Morona Santiago)

Type locality: Ecuador, Provincia Morona Santiago, buffer zone of El Quimi Biological Reserve, plateau on the eastern side of El Quimi river valley, 3.51892S, 78.3690W, WGS84, 2209 m  
TypesHolotype. QCAZ 15844, adult male, 11 July 2017, collected by Diego Almeida, Darwin Núñez, Eloy Nusirquia, Alex Achig and Ricardo Gavilanes.
Paratypes (3). Ecuador: Provincia Morona Santiago: QCAZ 16790 (hatchling), El Quimi Biological Reserve, base camp towards old heliport (high zone), 3.51894S, 78.36897W, WGS84, 2226 m, 17 April 2018; QCAZ 16788–89 (hatchlings), El Quimi Biological Reserve, near base camp, 3.5182S, 78.3913W, WGS84, 1994 m, 12 April 2018, collected by Diego Almeida, Darwin Núñez, Eloy Nusirquia, Alex Achig and María del Mar Moretta. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Pholidobolus condor is unique among its congeners, except P. samek sp. nov., in having green dorsolateral stripes on the head. However, adult males of P. condor differ from those of P. samek sp. nov. in having lighter dorsolateral head stripes, and reddish flanks and venter. In addition, P. ulisesi, P. dicrus, P. hillisi, and P. vertebralis differ from P. condor (character states of P. condor in parentheses) in having a conspicuous light vertebral stripe (light vertebral stripe absent). Pholidobolus affinis, P. prefrontalis, P. dicrus, P. hillisi, and P. vertebralis further differ from P. condor in having prefrontal scales (prefrontal scales absent). Additionally, P. condor sp. nov. has fewer dorsal scales (26−30) than P. affinis (45−55), P. montium (35−50), P. prefrontalis (37−46), P. macbrydei (31−43), and P. dolichoderes sp. nov. (35−40). Pholidobolus condor can be further distinguished from P. fascinatus sp. nov. by having widened medial scales on collar, and from P. dolichoderes sp. nov. by having fewer temporals (7–9 and 4–5, respectively), fewer ventrals (18–20 and 25–27), and fewer gulars (14–16 and 22–23). 
CommentConservation. Pholidobolus condor is only known from Cordillera del Cóndor in southeastern Ecuador. This area is currently threatened by mining activities (Ron et al. 2018; Valencia et al. 2017; Van Teijlingen 2016). Habitat destruction and fragmentation is evident at a distance of ~11 km from the collection sites (Mazabanda et al. 2018). Because of the small known distribution and habitat disturbance, Parra et al. suggest assigning P. condor to the Critically Endangered category under criteria B1a, b(iii); C1; D, according to IUCN (2012) guidelines. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet condor refers to Cordillera del Cóndor, where the new species was discovered. The Cordillera del Cóndor is an eastern outlier of the main Andean chain, where a significant number of species have been discovered in the last decade (Brito et al. 2017; Huamantupa-Chuquimaco and Neill 2018; Ron et al. 2018; Torres-Carvajal et al. 2009; Valencia et al. 2017). 
  • Parra, V., Nunes, P. M. S., & Torres-Carvajal, O. 2020. Systematics of Pholidobolus lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from southern Ecuador, with descriptions of four new species. ZooKeys 954: 109-156
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