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Pholidobolus dolichoderes PARRA, SALES-NUNES & TORRES-CARVAJAL, 2020

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Long-necked cuilanes
S: Cuilanes de cuello largo 
SynonymPholidobolus dolichoderes PARRA, SALES-NUNES & TORRES-CARVAJAL 2020 
DistributionEcuador (Azuay)

Type locality: Ecuador, Provincia Azuay, San Felipe de Oña, 3.4292S, 79.2364W, WGS84, 2672 m  
TypesHolotype. QCAZ 16353, adult male, 16 March 2018, collected by Diego Almeida, Darwin Núñez, Eloy Nusirquia, Alex Achig and Katherine Nicolalde.
Paratypes (4). Ecuador: Provincia Azuay: QCAZ 16349, 16352 (adult females), San Felipe de Oña, Susudel-Poetate road, 3.4322S, 79.2369W, WGS84, 2506 m, 16 March 2018; QCAZ 16350–51 (juveniles), San Felipe de Oña, 3.4275S, 79.2339W, WGS84, 2675 m, 16 March 2018, same collectors as holotype. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Pholidobolus dolichoderes is unique among its congeners in having a long neck with granular scales between the posterior corner of the orbit and the ante- rior edge of the tympanum, as well as an inconspicuous ventrolateral fold between fore and hindlimbs. In addition, P. ulisesi, P. dicrus, P. hillisi, and P. vertebralis differ from P. dolichoderes in having a conspicuous light vertebral stripe. The new species further dif- fers from P. affinis in lacking ocelli on flanks, and from P. condor sp. nov., P. macbrydei, and P. montium in having prefrontal scales. Pholidobolus dolichoderes has more dorsals (35–40) and ventrals (25–27) than P. samek sp. nov. (27–29 and 19–21, respectively) and P. condor sp. nov. (26–30 and 18–20), and, unlike P. fascinatus sp. nov., it has wid- ened medial scales on collar. In addition, P. dolichoderes has more temporals (7–9) and gulars (22–23) than P. samek sp. nov. (4–5 and 15–18, respectively), P. condor sp. nov. (4–5 and 14–16), and P. fascinatus sp. nov. (3–5 and 14–17). 
CommentHabitat: small valleys, desert areas and wet paramo. Most specimens were found active at day (10h26–15h30), mostly on the ground or near spiny ground bromeliads known as achupallas (Puya sp.).

Conservation. Pholidobolus dolichoderes is only known from unprotected localities around Oña. The population size of this species is unknown, but our sampling suggests low abundances. Because of the small known distribution and lack of additional data, Parra et al. 2020 suggest assigning P. dolichoderes to the Data Deficient category according to IUCN (2012) guidelines. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet dolichoderes derives from the Greek words dolikhós, meaning long, and derē, meaning neck, in allusion to the distinctively long neck of this species. 
  • Parra, V., Nunes, P. M. S., & Torres-Carvajal, O. 2020. Systematics of Pholidobolus lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae) from southern Ecuador, with descriptions of four new species. ZooKeys 954: 109-156
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