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Pholidobolus ulisesi VENEGAS, CHEVARRÍA, LOBOS, SALES-NUNES & TORRES-CARVAJAL, 2016

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymPholidobolus ulisesi VENEGAS, CHEVARRÍA, LOBOS, SALES-NUNES & TORRES-CARVAJAL 2016
Cercosaura vertebralis — DOAN & CUSI 2014 (part)
Pholidobolus sp. —TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2015: 286
Pholidobolus sp. — TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2016: 70 (Fig. 2) 
DistributionPeru (Cajamarca)

Type locality: Bosque de Huamantanga (5°39’48.09’’ S, 78°56’35.8’’ W), at 2,211 m elevation, Huabal district, Jaén province, Cajamarca department, Peru Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
 
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: CORBIDI 12734, an adult male, collected on 7 March 2013 by P.J. Venegas.
Paratypes (17): CORBIDI 12740–46 juveniles, COR- BIDI 12735–36, 12739 adult males, CORBIDI 12737–38 adult females, all collected with the holotype; CORBIDI 00871–73, an adult female, an adult male and a juvenile, respectively, from El Chaupe (5°14 ́8.16” S, 79°5 ́56.58” W), at 2,016 m elevation, Namballe district, San Ignacio province, Cajamarca department, Peru, collected by M. Dobiey on 24 August 2008; CORBIDI 14889, an adult female, and CORBIDI 14896, a juvenile, from San Feli- pe de Jaén (5°45’10.854” S, 79°14’19.881” W), at 2,641 m elevation, Jaén province, Cajamarca department, Peru collected by K. Garcia on 26 September 2014. 
CommentDiagnosis: Pholidobolus affinis, P. dicrus (Fig. 4A), P. hillisi (Fig. 4B), P. prefrontalis, and P. vertebralis (Fig. 4C) differ from the new species in having prefrontal scales. Pholidobolus montium and P. macbrydei have striated and quadrangular dorsal scales (strongly keeled and hexagonal in P. ulisesi), and lack the conspicuous narrow, pale brown, vertebral stripe present in P. ulisesi. In addition, the new species has fewer dorsal scales (28–31, x̄ = 29.75) than P. affinis (45–55), P. montium (35–50), P. prefrontalis (37–46), and P. macbrydei (31–43).

Variation: Variation in measurements and scutellation of Pholidobolus ulisesi is presented in Table 1. Usually two supraoculars, 2/3 (left/right) in specimen CORBI- DI 12742; superciliaries usually four, 3/4 in CORBIDI 12749, 6/5 in CORBIDI 00873, and 5/5 in CORBIDI 00872; little intrusive scales present on each side, in the posterior angle of frontonasal in three specimens (COR- BIDI 12735, 12741, 12744); usually seven supralabials, 7/6 in CORBIDI 00871, 12738 and 6/6 in CORBIDI 12742–43; infralabials usually six, 5/5 in CORBIDI 12738, 12740, 12742, 6/5 in CORBIDI 00873, 12744 and 5/6 in CORBIDI 12735, 12743. Rows of ventrolat- eral keeled scales vary from two rows in nine specimens (56% of the type series), one row on each side in three specimens (CORBIDI 00872, 12741, and 12745), three rows on each side in one specimen (CORBIDI 12739), and absent in two adult specimens (CORBIDI 00871 and CORBIDI 00873). Usually two scales on posterior cloacal plate, only two specimens (CORBIDI 12737–38) have three scales, and two other specimens (CORBIDI 00871 and 00873) have four scales. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet “ulisesi” is a noun in the genitive case and a patronym for Ulises Gamonal Guevara, for his significant contribution to the archaeology of Cajamarca in northwestern Peru. One of his major contributions is the discovery of the >6,000-year-old Faical cave paintings in San Ignacio, declared as Cultural Patrimony of the Nation. 
References
  • Doan, Tiffany M.; Juan C. Cusi 2014. Geographic distribution of Cercosaura vertebralis O’Shaughnessy, 1879 (Reptilia: Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) and the status of Cercosaura ampuedai (Lancini, 1968). Check List 10 (5): 1195-1200 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Simón E. Lobos, Pablo J. Venegas 2015. Phylogeny of Neotropical Cercosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) lizards. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 93: 281–288 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Simón E. Lobos, Pablo J. Venegas, Germán Chávez, Vanessa Aguirre-Peñafiel, Daniel Zurita, Lourdes Y. Echevarría 2016. Phylogeny and biogeography of the most diverse clade of South American gymnophthalmid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae, Cercosaurinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 99: 63-75, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.03.006 - get paper here
  • Venegas PJ, Echevarría LY, Lobos SE, Nunes PMS, and Torres-Carvajal O. 2016. A new species of Andean microteiid lizard (Gymnophthalmidae: Cercosaurinae: Pholidobolus) from Peru, with comments on P. vertebralis. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 10 (1) [Special Section]: 21–33 (e121) - get paper here
 
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