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Pholidoscelis exsul (COPE, 1862)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesPholidoscelis exsul exsul (COPE 1862)
Pholidoscelis exsul alboguttata (BOULENGER 1896)
Pholidoscelis exsul desechensis (HEATWOLE & TORRES 1967) 
Common NamesCommon Puerto Rican Ameiva 
SynonymAmeiva plei var. exsul COPE 1862: 66
Ameiva Riseii REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862 (fide BAUER & GÜNTHER 1994)
Ameiva riisei REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862 (Fide SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988)
Ameiva birdorum GRANT 1932: 160
Ameiva exsul — CAREY 1972
Ameiva exsul — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 191
Ameiva exsul — HOWER & HEDGES 2003
Ameiva exsul — HARVEY et al. 2012
Pholidoscelis exsul — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016

Pholidoscelis exsul alboguttata (BOULENGER 1896)
Ameiva alboguttata BOULENGER 1896: 112
Ameiva exsul alboguttata — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975
Ameiva exsul alboguttata — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 192
Ameiva alboguttata — HARVEY et al. 2012
Ameiva alboguttata — POWELL & HENDERSON 2012: 137
Pholidoscelis exsul alboguttata — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication)

Pholidoscelis exsul desechensis (HEATWOLE & TORRES 1967)
Ameiva desechensis HEATWOLE & TORRES 1967
Ameiva exsul desechensis — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975
Ameiva exsul desechensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 64
Ameiva exsul desechensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 192
Ameiva desechensis — JOGLAR in HAILEY et al. 2011: 357
Pholidoscelis exsul desechensis — GOICOECHEA et al. 2016 (by implication) 
DistributionPuerto Rico (including offshore islands), Vieques, Culebra, Virgin Islands (e.g. Anegada), Mona, Desecheo

exsul: above range except Isla Mona and Isla Desecheo. Type locality: Water Island, near St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.

alboguttata: Isla Mona.

desechensis: Isla Desecheo.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 30696
Holotype BMNH 1946.8.30.35 [alboguttata]
Holotype: UMMZ 73854 [birdorum]
Holotype MCZ 100041 [desechensis] 
CommentIllustrations: Stejneger, 1904; Schmidt, 1928; Heatwole and Torres, 1967; Rivero, 1978; MacLean, 1982; Grobman, 1983. 
  • Angeli, Nicole Frances, Kristina Chyn and Kaycee Faunce. 2015. Ameiva exsul (Puerto Rican ground lizard) reproduction. Herpetological Review 46 (2): 249-250 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas 1930. Some faunistic changes in the Lesser Antilles. Proc. New England Zool. Club 11: 73-85
  • Barbour,T. 1917. Notes on the herpetology of the Virgin Islands. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 30: 97-103. - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M. and R. Günther 1994. An annotated type catalogue of the teiid and microteiid lizards in the Zoological Museum, Berlin (Reptilia: Squamata: Teiidae and Gymnophthalmidae). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 70:267-280
  • Boulenger, George A. 1896. Ueber einige Reptilien von der Insel Mona (Westindien). Jahrberichte und Abhandlungen aus dem Naturwissenschaftlichen Verein in Magdeburg 1894-1896: 112-114
  • Carey, W.M. 1972. The Herpetology of Anegada, British Virgin Islands. Carib. J. Sci. 12(1/2): 79-89.
  • Cooper Jr., W.E. 2005. Duration of movement as a lizard foraging movement variable. Herpetologica 61 (4): 363-372 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1862. Synopsis of the species of Holcosus and Ameiva, with diagnoses of new West Indian and South American Colubridae. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 14: 60-82. - get paper here
  • Goicoechea, N., Frost, D. R., De la Riva, I., Pellegrino, K. C. M., Sites, J., Rodrigues, M. T. and Padial, J. M. 2016. Molecular systematics of teioid lizards (Teioidea/Gymnophthalmoidea: Squamata) based on the analysis of 48 loci under tree-alignment and similarity-alignment. Cladistics, doi: 10.1111/cla.12150 - get paper here
  • Grobman, A.B. 1983. The lizards of Virgin Gorda. Naturegraph Publ., Inc., Happy Camp, CA:5-23.
  • Heatwole, H., D.S. Sade & R. Hildreth 1963. Herpetogeography of Puerto Rico. I. Herpetofauna of Cayo Santiago and Cayo Batata. Carib. J. Sci. 3 (1): 1-5.
  • Heatwole, H.,and Torres, F. 1967. Distribution and geographic variation of the Ameivas of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Stud. Fauna Curaçao and Carib. Is. 24(92):63-1 11. - get paper here
  • Hower, Lindsey M., and S. Blair Hedges 2003. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of West Indian Teiid lizards of the genus Ameiva. Carib. J. Sci. 39 (3):298-306. - get paper here
  • Joglar, Rafael L.; Alberto O. Álvarez, T. Mitchell Aide, Diane Barber, Patricia A. Burrowes, Miguel A. García, Abimael León-Cardona, Ana V. Longo, Néstor Pérez-Buitrago, Alberto Puente, Neftalí Rios-López and Peter J. Tolson 2011. Conserving the Puerto Rican herpetofauna. In: Hailey et al., eds, Conservation of Caribbean Island Herpetofaunas Volume 2: 339-358
  • MacLean, W.P. 1982. Reptiles and amphibians of the Virgin Islands. MacMillan Caribbean, London: vii + 54 pp.
  • Philibosian, R.; Yntema, J. A. 1976. Records and status of some reptiles and amphibians in the Virgin Islands. I. 1968-1975. Herpetologica 32 (1): 81-85 - get paper here
  • Philibosian, R.; Yntema, J. A. 1978. Records and status of some reptiles and amphibians in the Virgin Islands. II. 1975-1976. Herpetologica 34 (1): 47-51 - get paper here
  • Reinhardt, JOHANNES & CHRISTIAN FREDERIK LÜTKEN 1862. Bidrag tii det vestindiske Öriges og navnligen tii de dansk-vestindiske Oers Herpetologie. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. For. Kjöbenhavn (10-18): 153-291 [1862] - get paper here
  • Rios-López, N. & Aide, T.M. 2007. Herpetofaunal dynomics during secondary succession. Herpetologica 63 (1): 35-50 - get paper here
  • Rivero, J.A. 1978. Los anfibios y reptiles de Puerto Rico. M. Pareja Montana, 16, Barcelona, Espafia: x + 152 + 148pp.
  • Schmidt, K.P. 1928. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Amphibians and land reptiles of Porto Rico, with a list of those reported from the Virgin Islands. New York Academy of Sciences 10 (1):160 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1904. The herpetology of Porto Rico. Rept. United States Natl. Mus. 1902: 549-724.
  • Tucker, Derek B.; | Stephen Blair Hedges | Guarino R. Colli | Robert Alexander Pyron | Jack W. Sites Jr 2017. Genomic timetree and historical biogeography of Caribbean island ameiva lizards (Pholidoscelis: Teiidae) Ecology and Evolution 7:7080–7090.
  • Werning, H. 2012. Zwischen Anolis und Cycluren: Unterwegs auf Puerto Rico. Reptilia (Münster) 17 (95): 100-109 - get paper here
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