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Phrynocephalus scutellatus (OLIVIER, 1807)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Gray Toadhead Agama 
SynonymAgama scutellata OLIVIER 1807 (III): 110
Agama scutellata — OLIVIER 1807 (V): 196
Phrynocephalus olivieri DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 517 (fide SMITH 1935)
Phrynocephalus tickelii GRAY 1845: 260 (fide BOULENGER 1885)
Phrynocephalus olivieri — BOULENGER 1885: 370
Phrynocephalus olivieri — ALCOCK & FINN 1897
Phrynocephalus olivieri var. brevipes NIKOLSKY 1906
Phrynocephalus olivieri var. carinipes NIKOLSKY 1906
Phrynocephalus scutellatus — SMITH 1935: 229
Phrynocephalus scutellatus — LEVITON 1959: 450
Phrynocephalus scutellatus — WERMUTH 1967: 88
Phrynocephalus scutellata — DAS 1996: 45
Phrynocephalus scutellatus — KHAN 1999
Phrynocephalus (Phrynocephalus) scutellatus — BARABANOV & ANANJEVA 2007
Phrynocephalus scutellatus — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008 
DistributionIran (incl. Kavir desert), Afghanistan, SW Pakistan (Baluchistan)

Type locality: “... au pied de la montagne (nommée Sophia ou Sophissar, en vue d’Ispahan)” [= Mt. Sophia, near Esfahan, Esfahan Province, Iran].

brevipes: Type locality: “Naim-abad (Damysan) in Chorosano occident” [Naim-Abad, Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran, 36.14 N 58.92 E].

carinipes: Type locality: “Pudeschk-Kupa” [Tudeshg, Isfahan Province, Iran, 32.72 N 52.67 E].  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 6947
Lectotype: ZISP 10235, adult female, (designated by Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007) [brevipes]
Lectotype: ZISP 10236 (designated by Barabanov & Ananjeva, 2007) [carinipes] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Dorsal scales heterogeneous; enlarged scales nail-like, with free posterior margin often tubercular; more than 16 scales across head between eyes; width of space between nostrils equal to or less than half distance between nostril and preocular ridge, side of back of head and neck without long, flat, upturned fringe-like scales (but sometimes with short, spiny scales); nasals large, in contact, or rarely separated by single series of scales; crossbars on tail most intense (black) and always present ventrally, though usually quite dark dorsally as well. Tail 118--157 percent of snout-vent length (Anderson 1999: 97). 
CommentSynonymy mostly after WERMUTH 1967.

Distribution: See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. 
  • Anderson, Steven C 1999. The lizards of Iran. Contributions to Herpetology Volume 15, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Saint Louis, Missouri: i-vii, 1-442 [review in Copeia 2000 (4): 1144] - get paper here
  • BARABANOV, A.V. & N.B. ANANJEVA 2007. Catalogue of the available scientific species-group names for lizards of the genus Phrynocephalus Kaup, 1825 (Reptilia, Sauria, Agamidae). Zootaxa 1399: 1-56 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Clark, R. 1990. A report on herpetological observations in Afghanistan. British Herpetological Society Bulletin (33): 20-42
  • Damadi, Ehsan; Rasoul Karamiani; Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani; Ali Gholamifard 2017. A checklist of lizards from southeastern part of the Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics, DOI: 10.22067/ijab.v13i1.50398 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Forcart,Lothar 1950. Amphibien und Reptilien von Iran. Verh. naturf. Ges. Basel 61: 141-156
  • Frynta,D. et al. 1997. Results of the Czech biological expedition to Iran. Part 1. Notes on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles. Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem. 61: 3-17
  • Haas G. and Werner, Y. L. 1969. Lizards and snakes from Southwestern Asia, collected by Henry Field. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138: 327-406. - get paper here
  • Kafash, Anooshe; Shima Malakoutikhah, Masoud Yousefi, Farhad Ataei, Hamid Heidari, and Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani 2018. The Gray Toad-headed Agama, Phrynocephalus scutellatus, on the Iranian Plateau: The degree of niche overlap depends on the phylogenetic distance. Zoology in the Middle East 64 (1)
  • Khan, M. S. 1999. A checklist and key to the phrynocephalid lizards of Pakistan, with ethnological notes (Squamata: Agamidae). Pakistan J. Zool. 31 (1): 17-24 - get paper here
  • Khan, M.S. 2003. CHECKLIST AND KEY TO THE LIZARDS OF PAKISTAN. Pakistan J. Zool. Suppl. Ser. (1): 1-25 - get paper here
  • Leviton, Alan E. 1959. Report on a collection of reptiles from Afghanistan. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 29 (12): 445-463 - get paper here
  • Leviton,A.E. 1959. Systematics and Zoogeography of Philippine Snakes. Unpublished PhD Thesis.
  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1897. Les reptiles, amphibiens et poissons recueillis (part.) Mr. N. Zaroudny dans la Perse orientale [in Russian]. Annuaire Musée Zoologique de l’Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg 2: 306-348 - get paper here
  • Nikolsky, A. M. 1915. Faune de la Russie, Reptiles Vol. 1 Chelonia et Sauria(Reptiles of Russia and adjacent countries. Reptiles (Reptilia) Vol. 1) [in Russian]. Imper. Acad. Sci., Petrograd, 532 pp. [Translated from Russian by the Israel Program for Scientific Translations 1963]
  • Nilson,G. & Andren,C. 1981. Die Herpetofauna des Kavir-Schutzgebietes, Kavir-Wüste, Iran. Salamandra 17 (3-4): 130-146 - get paper here
  • Olivier, G.A. 1807. Voyage dans l’Empire Othoman, l’Egypte et la Perse, Tome III. Agasse, Paris, 566 pp. (4th ed.) - get paper here
  • Olivier, G.A. 1807. Voyage dans l’Empire Othoman, l’Egypte et la Perse, Tome V. Agasse, Paris, 485 pp. (8th ed.) - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Schmidt,K.P. 1939. Reptiles and amphibians from Southwestern Asia. Publ. Field Mus. nat. Hist., zool. Ser., 24: 49-92 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • ŠMÍD, JIŘÍ; JIŘÍ MORAVEC, PETR KODYM, LUKÁŠ KRATOCHVÍL, SEYYED SAEED HOSSEINIAN YOUSEFKHANI, ESKANDAR RASTEGAR-POUYANI & DANIEL FRYNTA 2014. Annotated checklist and distribution of the lizards of Iran. Zootaxa 3855 (1): 001–097
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
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