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Phrynocephalus theobaldi BLYTH, 1863

IUCN Red List - Phrynocephalus theobaldi - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Theobald's toad-headed agama, Toad Mounted lizard, snow lizard; lidskii: Tibetan Toadhead Agama; alticola: Montane toad-headed agama

Nepali: Hiu cheparo
Chinese: 西藏沙蜥 
SynonymPhrynocephalus Theobaldi BLYTH 1863: 90
Phrynocephalus stolickai STEINDACHNER 1867: 23
Phrynocephalus theobaldi — BOULENGER 1885: 373
Phrynocephalus caudivolvulus ANDERSON 1872 (fide SMITH 1935)
Phrynocephalus vlangalii var. lidskii BEDRIAGA 1909: 479
Phrynocephalus lidskii — TZAREVSKY 1927: 25.
Phrynocephalus theobaldi — SMITH 1935: 230
Phrynocephalus theobaldi — WERMUTH 1967: 89
Phrynocephalus alticola PETERS 1984
Phrynocephalus alticola — DAS 1996: 44
Phrynocephalus theobaldi — DAS 1996: 45
Phrynocephalus zetangensis WANG et al. 1996
Phrynocephalus theobaldi orientalis WANG et al in: WANG et al. 1999: 27
Phrynocephalus theobaldi lhasaensis BARABANOV et al. 2002
Phrynocephalus theobaldi — WANG et al. 2003
Phrynocephalus zetangensis — WANG et al. 2003
Phrynocephalus lidskii — BARTS & WILMS 2003
Phrynocephalus (Oreosaurua) theobaldi — BARABANOV & ANANJEVA 2007
Phrynocephalus zetangensis — WANG et al. 2009
Phrynocephalus lidskii — MILTO & BARABANOV 2012: 165
Phrynocephalus theobaldi — KÄSTLE et al. 2013: 429
Phrynocephalus theobaldi orientalis — JIN et al. 2018
Phrynocephalus theobaldi theobaldi — JIN et al. 2018 
DistributionE Turkestan,
India (Jammu, Kashmir), Nepal
China (Xinjiang, Xizang = S Tibet)

alticola: India (Jammu, Kashmir), elevation 4000-5000 m.; Type locality: “Ruckchin = Rukchen, in der Landschaft Rupshu in Ladakh, ca. 90 km SES von Leh; abflussloses Hochtal zwischen 4000-5000 m uber NN” in Jammu and Kashmir State, India.”

lidskii: NW Tibet (Keria mountains); Type locality: “Gebirgskette Russki, Tibet und nördliches Tibet, Tschertschen, zwischen Atschan und Ssuchet, Kara-ssai, Tochtachun und Keria-Gebirge” (fide WERMUTH 1967).

zetangensis: China (Xizang = Tibet); Type locality: "Zetang, Xizang Autonomous Region, China; 3950 m elevation” [approximately 29º13' N, 91º47' E].”

Type locality: Lake Chomoriri = Tsho-marari, Rupshu Province, Tibet.  
TypesSyntypes: ZSI 5391–93
Lectotype: ZISP 7258.1 (designated by Peters, 1984: 47), . [lidskii]
Holotype: BMNH [alticola]
Holotype: CIB 0156, Male [zetangensis] 
CommentSynonymy after BARABANOV & ANANJEVA 2007. 
  • ANANJEVA, Natalia B.; Xianguang GUO and Yuezhao WANG 2011. Taxonomic Diversity of Agamid Lizards (Reptilia, Sauria, Acrodonta, Agamidae) from China: A Comparative Analysis. Asian Herpetological Research 2 (3): 117-128 - get paper here
  • BARABANOV, A.V. & N.B. ANANJEVA 2007. Catalogue of the available scientific species-group names for lizards of the genus Phrynocephalus Kaup, 1825 (Reptilia, Sauria, Agamidae). Zootaxa 1399: 1-56 - get paper here
  • Barabanov, Andrei, Natalia Ananjeva, Theodore J. Papenfuss and Wang Yuezhao 2002. A new name for Phrynocephalus theobaldi orientalis Wang, Papenfuss et Zeng, 1999. Russ. J. Herpetol. 9 (1):80 - get paper here
  • Barts, M. & Wilms, T. 2003. Die Agamen der Welt. Draco 4 (14): 4-23 - get paper here
  • Bedriaga, J.V. 1909. Amphibien und Reptilien. In: Wissenschaftliche Resultate der Reisen N.M. Przewalskijs durch Zentralasien. Zoologische Teil. Band 3. Part 1. Lacertilia. (in Russian). Sankt-Petersburg, Vol 3 (1) 3: 73-102, 367
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Blyth, EDWARD 1863. Report of the curator, zoological department. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Calcutta, 32 (1): 73-90. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Guo, P., F. J. Zhang, and Y. Y. Chen. 1999. Catalogue of type specimens of reptiles in the Herpetological Collections of Chengdu Institute of Biology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Asiatic Herpetological Research 8: 43~47 - get paper here
  • Guo, X. & Wang, Y. 2007. Partitioned Bayesian analyses, dispersal–vicariance analysis, and the biogeography of Chinese toad-headed lizards (Agamidae: Phrynocephalus): A re-evaluation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution <br />45 (2): 643-662 - get paper here
  • GUO, Xianguang; Li LIU and Yuezhao WANG 2012. Phylogeography of the Phrynocephalus vlangalii Species Complex in the Upper Reaches of the Yellow River Inferred from mtDNA ND4-tRNALEU Segments. Asian Herpetological Research 3 (1): - get paper here
  • Ji, Xiang; Yue-Zhao Wang & Zheng Wang 2009. New species of Phrynocephalus (Squamata, Agamidae) from Qinghai, Northwest China. Zootaxa 1988: 61-68 - get paper here
  • Jin, Yuanting; Yubin Wo, Haojie Tong, Sen Song, Lixun Zhang and Richard P. Brown 2018. Evolutionary analysis of mitochondrially encoded proteins of toad-headed lizards, Phrynocephalus, along an altitudinal gradient. BMC Genomics (2018) 19:185 - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Milto, Konstantin D.; Andrei V. Barabanov 2012. A Catalogue of the Agamid and Chamaeleonid Types in the Collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Russ. J. Herpetol. 19 (2): 155-170 - get paper here
  • Nanhoe, L.M.R., & Ouboter, P.E. 1987. The distribution of reptiles and amphibians in the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region (Nepal). Zoologische Verhandelingen (240): 1-105 - get paper here
  • Pang, Junfeng; Yuezhao Wang, Yang Zhong, A. Rus Hoelzel, Theodore J. Papenfuss, Xiaomao Zeng, Natalia B. Ananjeva and Ya-ping Zhang 2003. A phylogeny of Chinese species in the genus Phrynocephalus (Agamidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 27: 398-409 - get paper here
  • Peters G 1984. Die Krötenkopfagamen Zentralasiens (Agamidae: Phrynocephalus). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 60(1): 23-67
  • Sahi D.N., Koul S. 2020. Annotated List of Amphibians and Reptiles of Jammu and Kashmir State. In: Dar G. & Khuroo A. (eds) Biodiversity of the Himalaya: Jammu and Kashmir State. Topics in Biodiversity and Conservation, vol 18. Springer, Singapore - get paper here
  • Schmidt,K.P. 1926. Amphibians and Reptiles of the James Simpson-Roosevelt Asiatic Expedition. Field Mus. nat. Hist., Zool. Ser. 12: 167-173 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Steindachner, F. 1867. In: Reise der Österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858,1859 unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wüllerstorf-Urbair (Zoologie), Vol. 1, part 3 (Reptilien p.1-98). K. Gerold's Sohn/Kaiserlich-Königl. Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, Wien [1869 on title page] - get paper here
  • Venugopal, P.D. 2010. An updated and annotated list of Indian lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) based on a review of distribution records and checklists of Indian reptiles. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2 (3): 725-738. - get paper here
  • Waltner, R.C. 1975. Geographical and altitudinal distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Himalayas. Cheetal (Dehra Dun, India) 16(1): 17-25; 16(2): 28-36; 16(3): 14-19; 16(4): 12-17.
  • Wang Yuezhao; Zeng Xiaomao; Fang Zili; Liu Zhijun; Wu Guanfu; Papenfuss T J; Macey R J 1996. A new species of the genus Phrynocephalus - Phrynocephalus zetanensis sp. nov. Zoological Research 17 (1): 27-29
  • Zeng, Xiaomao; Wang, Yaozhao; Liu, Zhijun;Yu, Pin 1994. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE KARYOTYPE OF THREE SPECIES IN Phrynocephalus (Agamidae). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 1994 (2) - get paper here
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
  • Zugmayer,Erich 1909. Beiträge zur Herpetologie von Zentral-Asien. Zool. Jahrb. Abt. Syst. 27: 481-508 - get paper here
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