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Phrynocephalus vlangalii STRAUCH, 1876

IUCN Red List - Phrynocephalus vlangalii - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Agaminae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesPhrynocephalus vlangalii hongyuanensis ZHAO et al. 1980
Phrynocephalus vlangalii vlangalii STRAUCH 1876 
Common NamesChing Hai Toadhead Agama; pylzowi: Pylzow's Toadhead Agama; geckoides: Gecko Toadhead Agama 
SynonymPhrynocephalus Vlangalii STRAUCH 1876: 20
Phrynocephalus vlangalii – BOULENGER 1885: 372
Phrynocephalus vlangalii var. nanschanica BEDRIAGA 1907: 172
Phrynocephalus vlangalii var. nauscranica — BOULENGER 1908: 29 (in error)
Phrynocephalus Vlangalii var. geckoides BEDRIAGA 1909: 466
Phrynocephalus Vlangalii var. parva BEDRIAGA 1909: 468
Phrynocephalus Vlangalii var. Pylzowi BEDRIAGA, 1909: 471
Phrynocephalus Reldoe BEDRIAGA, 1909: 495
Phrynocephalus Vlangalii var. Grombtschewskii BEDRIAGA 1909: 463
Phrynocephalus Vlangalii var. parva BEDRIAGA 1909
Phrynocephalus putjatae BEDRIAGA 1909
Phrynocephalus reldae BEDRIAGA 1909
Phrynocephalus vlaugalii — BOULENGER 1910: 29 (lapsus calami)
Phrynocephalus geckoides — TZAREVSKY 1927: 25
Phrynocephalus parvus — TZAREVSKY 1927: 25
Phrynocephalus pylzowi — TZAREVSKY 1927: 25
Phrynocephalus nanschanicus — TZAREVSKY 1927: 26
Phrynocephalus grombtschewskii — TZAREVSKY 1927: 26
Phrynocephalus reldo — TZAREVSKY 1927: 26 (unjustified emendation)
Phrynocephalus parvus subsp. pylzowi — TZAREVSKY 1927: 304
Phrynocephalus vlangalii — WERMUTH 1967: 91
Phrynocephalus vlangalii — WANG et al. 2003
Phrynocephalus geckoides — BARTS & WILMS 2003
Phrynocephalus (Oreosaura) vlangalii vlangalii — BARABANOV & ANANJEVA 2007
Phrynocephalus geckoides — MILTO & BARABANOV 2012: 165
Phrynocephalus grombtschewskii — MILTO & BARABANOV 2012: 165
Phrynocephalus vlangalii nanschanica — MILTO & BARABANOV 2012: 165
Phrynocephalus parvus — MILTO & BARABANOV 2012: 166
Phrynocephalus vlangalii pylzowi — MILTO & BARABANOV 2012: 166
Phrynocephalus erythrurus parva — ZHU et al. 2016
Phrynocephalus vlangalii pylzowi — JIN et al. 2018
Phrynocephalus vlangalii nanschanica — JIN et al. 2018
Phrynocephalus vlangalii vlangalii — JIN et al. 2018
Phrynocephalus erythrurus parva — JIN et al. 2018

Phrynocephalus (Oreosaura) vlangalii hongyuanensis ZHAO et al. 1980
Phrynocephalus vlangalii hongyuanensis ZHAO, JIANG & HUANG in JIANG et al. 1980: 178
Phrynocephalus vlangalii hongyuanensis ZHAO, JIANG & HUANG 1980: 178
Phrynocephalus hongyuanensis WANG & JIANG 1992
Phrynocephalus hongyuanensis — WANG et al. 2003
Phrynocephalus (Oreosaura) vlangalii hongyuanensis — BARABANOV & ANANJEVA 2007 
DistributionChina (Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, NW Sichuan)

Type locality: ad lacum Kuku-nor dictum.

hongyuanensis: China (Sichuan); Type locality: Waqên, Hongyuan County, 33º03’N; 102º37’E, Sichuan Province, China; 3500 m elevation.

geckoides China (Qinghai); Type locality: “Mündung des Tschurmyn; Guidui; Berge bei Guidui und Gomi” (fide WERMUTH 1967). “Einmündung des Tschurmyn in den oberen Choang-ho” (Peters 1984). Terra typica restricta: Estuary of the Tschurmyn River [probably Tschumar, or Qumar He, Qinghai Province], China.

parva: China (Qinhai); Type locality: “D. Tschu und Tibet sept.” (fide WERMUTH 1967).; Terra typica restricta: "Dytschu" or “Dy-cu” [Peters 1984] [= Moron Us and Tuotuo rivers, Qinghai Province, China].

pylzowi: China; Type locality: “Chuanche und Gomi” (fide WERMUTH 1967). Terra typica restricta: "Hoang-ho-Quellgebiet", China.

reldoe: China (Qinhai); Terra typica: "Gomi" [= Balekun omi or Kyikug, near Gong He County (36º20' N, 100º60' E), south of Qinghai (Kuku-Nor) Lake, Qinghai Province, China].  
TypesHolotype: ZISP 3946 (vlangalii)
Lectotype (designated by Peters, 1984: 46), ZISP 7084.1. [pylzowi]
Lectotype (designated by Peters, 1984: 46), ZISP 7278.1. [parva]
Lectotype (designated by Peters, 1984). ZISP 6601.1, “Tschurmynmündung” [probably Tschumar, or Qumar He, Qinghai povince, China]. Leg: N. M. Prze- walsky, 1880 [geckoides]
Lectotype (designated by Peters, 1984). ZISP 7269.1, “Dabsun-Gobi, also südlich vom Kuku-nor-Ge- birge” [Qaidam basin, south of Qinghai Hu mountain, Qinghai province, China]. Leg: N. M. Przewalsky, 1886 [grombtschewskii]
Lectotype (designated by Peters, 1984). ZISP 7081.1, “Nan-shan” [Nanshan mountains, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China]. Leg: N. M. Prze- walsky, 1880 [nanschanica]. 
CommentSynonymy: WERMUTH 1967 synonymizes P. v. roborowskii with vlangalii. Wang et al. 2002 synonymize P. reldae, P. blanfordi, and P. carinilabris with P. vlangalii. Guo & Wang (2007) synonymized Phrynocephalus hongyuanensis with P. vlangalii and elevated P. putjatia [sic] to full species status. GUO et al. 2012 also suggest to synonymize hongyuanensis with P. v. pylzowi. JIN et al. 2018 do not draw any taxonomic conclusions from their phylogenetic analysis.

Hybridization: P. vlangalii and P. putjatae hybridize in the Qinghai region (JIN & LIU 2008). 
  • ANANJEVA, Natalia B.; Xianguang GUO and Yuezhao WANG 2011. Taxonomic Diversity of Agamid Lizards (Reptilia, Sauria, Acrodonta, Agamidae) from China: A Comparative Analysis. Asian Herpetological Research 2 (3): 117-128 - get paper here
  • BARABANOV, A.V. & N.B. ANANJEVA 2007. Catalogue of the available scientific species-group names for lizards of the genus Phrynocephalus Kaup, 1825 (Reptilia, Sauria, Agamidae). Zootaxa 1399: 1-56 - get paper here
  • Barts, M. & Wilms, T. 2003. Die Agamen der Welt. Draco 4 (14): 4-23 - get paper here
  • Bedriaga, J.V. 1909. Amphibien und Reptilien. In: Wissenschaftliche Resultate der Reisen N.M. Przewalskijs durch Zentralasien. Zoologische Teil. Band 3. Part 1. Lacertilia. (in Russian). Sankt-Petersburg, Vol 3 (1) 3: 73-102, 367
  • Bedriaga, JACQUES VON 1907. Verzeichnis der von der Central-Asiatischen Expedition unter Stabs-Kapitän W. Roborowski in den Jahren 1893-1895 gesammelten Reptilien. Annu. Mus. Zool. Acad. Impér. Sci. St.-Petersbourg, 10 (3-4): 159-200 [1905] - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the Lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Ezaz, T. et al. 2009. Sex Chromosome Evolution in Lizards: Independent Origins and Rapid Transitions. Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 249-260 - get paper here
  • Guo, X. & Wang, Y. 2007. Partitioned Bayesian analyses, dispersal–vicariance analysis, and the biogeography of Chinese toad-headed lizards (Agamidae: Phrynocephalus): A re-evaluation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution <br />45 (2): 643-662 - get paper here
  • GUO, Xianguang; Li LIU and Yuezhao WANG 2012. Phylogeography of the Phrynocephalus vlangalii Species Complex in the Upper Reaches of the Yellow River Inferred from mtDNA ND4-tRNALEU Segments. Asian Herpetological Research 3 (1): - get paper here
  • Halliwell, B., Uller, T., Holland, B. R., & While, G. M. 2017. Live bearing promotes the evolution of sociality in reptiles. Nature Communications, 8(1): 2030 - get paper here
  • Huang, Yan; Wu, Xue; Li, Yan Hong; Liao, Wen Bo 2014. Global warming, body size and conservation in a Qinghai-Tibet Plateau lizard. The Herpetological Journal 24 (3): 161-166 - get paper here
  • Ji, Xiang; Yue-Zhao Wang & Zheng Wang 2009. New species of Phrynocephalus (Squamata, Agamidae) from Qinghai, Northwest China. Zootaxa 1988: 61-68 - get paper here
  • Jiang, YAO-MING, QING-YUN HUANG, and ER-MI ZHAO. 1980. A new subspecies of Phrynocephalus vlangalii (Strauch) andpreliminaiy observations on its ecology. [in Chinese with English abstract]. Acta Zool. Sinica 26: 178-183
  • Jin, Yuan-Ting; Liu, Nai-Fa 2007. Altitudinal variation in reproductive strategy of the toad-headed lizard, Phrynocephalus vlangalii in North Tibet Plateau (Qinghai). Amphibia-Reptilia 28 (4): 509-515 - get paper here
  • Jin, Yuanting; Liu, Naifa 2008. Ecological genetics of Phrynocephalus vlangalii on the North Tibetan (Qinghai) plateau: correlation between environmental factors and population genetic variability. Biochem. Genet. 46: 598-604
  • Jin, Yuanting; Liu, Naifa 2008. Introgression of mt DNA between two Phrynocephalus lizards in Qinghai Plateau [in Chinese]. Acta zool. Sinica 54 (1): 111-121
  • Jin, Yuanting; Liu, Naifa; Li, Jinlu. 2007. Elevational variation in body size of Phrynocephalus vlangalii in the North Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. Belgian Journal of Zoology 137(2):197-202
  • Jin, Yuanting; Yubin Wo, Haojie Tong, Sen Song, Lixun Zhang and Richard P. Brown 2018. Evolutionary analysis of mitochondrially encoded proteins of toad-headed lizards, Phrynocephalus, along an altitudinal gradient BMC Genomics (2018) 19:185 - get paper here
  • LI, Weixin; Shiwei LIANG, Huihui WANG, Ying XIN, Songsong LU, Xiaolong TANG and Qiang CHEN 2016. The Effects of Chronic Hypoxia on Thermoregulation and Metabolism in Phrynocephalus vlangalii. Asian Herpetological Research 7 (2): 103, DOI:10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.150010-111 - get paper here
  • Lu, Hong-Liang; Jiang, Chuan-Quan; Ji, Xiang 2015. Locomotor costs of pregnancy in a viviparous toad-headed lizard, Phrynocephalus vlangalii (Agamidae). The Herpetological Journal 25 (3): 149-154 - get paper here
  • Milto, Konstantin D.; Andrei V. Barabanov 2012. A Catalogue of the Agamid and Chamaeleonid Types in the Collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Russ. J. Herpetol. 19 (2): 155-170 - get paper here
  • Noble, D.W.A.; Qi, Y; Fu, J. 2010. Species delineation using Bayesian model-based assignment tests: a case study using Chinese toad-headed agamas (genus Phrynocephalus). BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 197 - get paper here
  • Pang, Junfeng; Yuezhao Wang, Yang Zhong, A. Rus Hoelzel, Theodore J. Papenfuss, Xiaomao Zeng, Natalia B. Ananjeva and Ya-ping Zhang 2003. A phylogeny of Chinese species in the genus Phrynocephalus (Agamidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 27: 398-409 - get paper here
  • Peters G 1984. Die Krötenkopfagamen Zentralasiens (Agamidae: Phrynocephalus). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 60(1): 23-67
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  • Strauch in: PRZEWALSKI, N.M. 1876. Mongoliya i Strana Tangutov. Tryokhletneye puteshestviye v Vostochnoj Nagoruoj Asii (= Mongolia and the Tangut Country. A Three-Year Travel in Eastern High Asia). Volumes 1-2. Imper. Russ. Geogr. Soc., St. Petersburg (in Russian; English edition, London 1876, French edition, Paris 1880, German edition, Jena 1887; abridged Russian edition with added notes, Moscow 1946). - get paper here
  • Tzarevsky [= Carevskij], S. 1927. Les lézards du genre Phrynocephalus, collectionnés par les expéditions de P. Koslov au Tibet en 1899-1901 et en Mongolie et Sze-Tschwan 1907-1909 [in Russian with French title]. Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sci- <br />ences de l’URSS, 1927: 303–306
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  • WANG, Yue Zhao; ZENG, Xiao Mao; FANG, Z| Li; WU Guan Fu; LIU, Zhi Jun; Theodore J.Papenfuss & J.Robert Macey 2002. A VALID SPECIES OF THE GENUS PHRYNOCEPHALUS: P. PUTJATIA AND A DISCUSSION ON TAXONOMY OF PHRYNOCEPHALUS HONGYUANENSIS (SAURIA:AGAMIDAE). Acta Zootaxonomica Sinica 27 (2): 372-383 - get paper here
  • Wang, YUE-ZHAO, and YAO-MING JIANG. 1992. Study on the taxonomy of Phrynocephalus vlangalii hongyuanensis-a new species of the genus of Phrynocephalus (Reptilia: Agamidae), (in Chinese with English abstract). In: Yao-ming Jiang (editor), A Collection of Papers on Herpetology. Sichuan Sci. Technol. Publ. House, Chengdu, pages 111-115. - get paper here
  • Zhan, A. & Fu, J. 2009. Microsatellite DNA markers for three toad-headed lizard species (Phrynocephalus vlangalii, P. przewalskii and P. guttatus). Molecular Ecology Resources 9: 535–538
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  • Zhu, L.; Liao P, Tong H, Jin Y. 2016. The complete mitochondrial genome of the subspecies, Phrynocephalus erythrurus parva (Reptilia, Squamata, Agamidae), a toad-headed lizard dwell at highest elevations of any reptile in the world. Mitochondrial DNA. 2016;27(1):703-4. doi: 10.3109/19401736.2014.913151 - get paper here
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