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Phrynops geoffroanus (SCHWEIGGER, 1812)

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Higher TaxaChelidae, Chelinae, Testudines (turtles) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesGeoffroy’s Toadhead Turtle, Geoffroy’s Side-necked Turtle
tuberosus: Cotinga River Toadhead Turtle 
SynonymEmys geoffroana SCHWEIGGER 1812
Emys Geoffreana SCHWEIGGER 1812 (fide BOULENGER 1886)
Emys depressa MERREM 1820 (non Emys depressa SPIX 1824)
Emys viridis SPIX 1824 (?)
Emys geoffroyana GRAY 1831 (nomen subst. pro E. geoffroana SCHWEIGGER)
Platemys geoffreana DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 418 (nomen subst. pro E. geoffroana)
Platemys Waglerii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 422
Platemys Neuwiedii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 425 (nomen subst. pro Emys depressa)
Platemys Geoffroyana — BOULENGER 1886: 424
Hydraspis geoffroyana — BOULENGER 1889
Hydraspis wagleri — BOULENGER 1889
Hydraspis boulengeri BOHLS 1895
Hydraspis lutzi Ihering in LUEDERWALDT 1926 (?)
Phrynops geoffroana — MERTENS et al. 1934
Phrynops geoffroana geoffroana — MÜLLER 1939
Phrynops geoffroanus — GORZULA & SEÑARIS 1999
Phrynops geoffroanus — MCCORD et al. 2001
Phrynops geoffroanus — BOUR & ZAHER 2005
Phrynops geoffroanus — CACCIALI et al. 2016 
DistributionSW/E Venezuela, SE Colombia, E Ecuador, E Peru, SW/E Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Paraná, Pernambuco),
N Bolivia, Paraguay, NE Argentina (Corrientes, Misiones), Guyana ?

Type locality: “Brasilia”. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: MNHN 9417
Holotype: ZSM 3008/0 [Emys viridis Spix, 1824] 
CommentSubspecies: Phrynops geoffroanus hilarii and P. g. tuberosus have been elevated to species status. For a color illustration and distribution map see MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2002.

Distribution: Not in Venezuela (fide RIVAS et al. 2012). Distribution not fixed for elevation.

Type species: Emys geoffroana SCHWEIGGER 1812 is the type species of the genus Phrynops WAGLER 1830. For a diagnosis of the genus see MCCORD et al. 2001.

Habitat: freshwater (rivers) 
EtymologyNamed in honor of Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, French zoologist. 
References
  • Artner, H. G. 1995. Nomenklatur aktuell: Gattung Phrynops. Emys 2 (3): 13
  • Artner, H. G. 1997. Nomenklatur aktuell: bestimmungsschlüssel für die Gattung Phrynops. Emys 4 (3): 29–31
  • Ávila, R.W.; R.A. Kawashita-Ribeiro. 2011. Herpetofauna of São João da Barra Hydroelectric Plant, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Check List 7 (6): 750-755 - get paper here
  • Baldo, D.; Martinez, P.; Boeris, J.M. & Giraudo, A.R. 2007. Reptilia, Chelonii, Chelidae, Phrynops geoffroanus Schweigger, 1812 and Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei (Bour, 1973): Distribution extension, new country record, and new province records in Argentina. Check List 3 (4): 348-352 - get paper here
  • Barros Molina, Flavio de 1996. Mating behavior of captive Geoffroy's side-necked turtles, Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines: Chelidae). Herpetological Natural History 4 (2): 155-160
  • Bohls, J. 1895. Bermerkung zur Eintheilung der Chelydidae. Zool. Anz. 18: 51-53 - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1886. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18: 423-445 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1889. Catalogue of the Chelonians, Rhynchocephalians, and Crocodiles in the British Museum (Natural History). British Museum, London, 311 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Types of three species of sideneck turtle belonging to the genus Phrynops Wagler, 1830: Emys geoffroana Schweigger, 1812, Platemys hilarii Duméril & Bibron, 1835, and Platemys waglerii Duméril & Bibron, 1835. Emys 15 (2):35-41
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598
  • Bour, R. & Zaher, H. 2005. A NEW SPECIES OF MESOCLEMMYS, FROM THE OPEN FORMATIONS OF NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL (CHELONII, CHELIDAE). Pap. Avul. Zool., Sao Paulo 45 (24): 295-311 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Cajade, Rodrigo; Marangoni, Federico; Piñeiro, José Miguel; Álvarez, Blanca Beatríz 2014. Confirmación de la presencia de Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812) (Testudines, Chelidae) en la provincia de Misiones, Argentina Cuad. Herpetol. 28: - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Cisneros-Heredia, D.F. 2006. Turtles of the Tiputini Biodiversity Station with remarks on the diversity and distribution of the Testudines from Ecuador. Biota Neotrop. 6 (1): 1-16 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ferronato, B. et al. 2011. New locality records for chelonians (Testudines: Chelidae, Podocnemididae, Testudinidae) from Departamento de Pasco, Peru. Herpetology Notes 4: 219-224 - get paper here
  • Ferronato, B.O. et al. 2009. Oral bacterial microbiota and traumatic injuries of free-ranging Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines, Chelidae) in southeastern Brazil. Phyllomedusa 8 (1): 19-26 - get paper here
  • Gaffney, Eugene S. 1977. The side-necked turtle family Chelidae: a theory of relationships using shared derived characters. American Museum Novitates (2620): 1-28 - get paper here
  • Gorzula, Stefan & Senaris, J. Celsa 1999. In: Contribution to the herpetofauna of the Venezuelan Guayana. I: a data base. Scientia Guaianae, Caracas, No. 8 [1998], 269+ pp.; ISBN 980-6020-48-0
  • Grychta, U. & R. Grychta 1995. Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812) - Haltung und Zucht der Dunklen Krötenkopfschildkröten. Sauria 17 (1): 11-13 - get paper here
  • Luederwaldt, H. 1926. Os chelonios brasilieros com a lista das espécies do Museu Paulista. Rev. Mus. Paulista, Sao Paulo 14:408-468
  • McCord, W. P., Joseph-Ouni, M.i & W. W. Lamar 2001. A taxonomic reevaluation of Phrynops (Testudines: Chelidae) with the description of two new genera and a new species of Batrachemys. Revista de Biologia Tropical 49 (2): 715-764 - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1967. Bemerkenswerte Süßwasserschildkröten aus Brasilien. Senckenbergiana Biologica 48 (1): 71-82
  • Nascimento de Oliveira, Camila; Sérgio Luiz da Silva Muniz, Geraldo Jorge Barbosa de Moura 2016. Reptiles of an urban Atlantic Rainforest fragment in the state of Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 9: 175-183 - get paper here
  • Novelli, Iara Alves, Bernadete Maria De Sousa, Sueli de Souza Lima and Fabiano Matos Vieira. 2013. Phrynops geoffroanus (Geoffroy's side-necked turtle) endoparasite. Herpetological Review 44 (2): 308
  • Oliveira-Ferronato, Bruno de; Carlos Ignacio Piña, Freddy Cochachez Molina, Renato A. Espinosa, and Víctor R. Morales 2013. Feeding Habits of Amazonian Freshwater Turtles (Podocnemididae and Chelidae) from Peru. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Jul 2013, Vol. 12, No. 1: 119-126. - get paper here
  • Philippen, H. - D. 2012. Phrynops. Die Gattung der Krötenkopfschildkröten. Reptilia (Münster) 17 (98): 42-48 - get paper here
  • RIBAS, E. R. ; MONTEIRO FILHO, Emygdio Leite de Araujo 2002. Distribution and Habitat of the Freshwater Turtles (Testudines, Chelidae) from State of Paraná – Brasil. Biociências (Porto Alegre) 10 (2): 15-32
  • Rodrigues, M.T. 2003. Herpetofauna da Caatinga. In: I.R. Leal, M. Tabarelli & J.M.C. Silva (eds.). Ecologia e conservação da Caatinga, pp. 181-236. Editora Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brasil.
  • Santos, D.L.; S.P. Andrade; E.P. Victor-Jr.; W. Vaz-Silva 2014. Amphibians and reptiles from southeastern Goiás, Central Brazil. Check List 10 (1): 131-148 - get paper here
  • Schneider, Larissa; Camila R. Ferrara, Richard C. Vogt, and Alessandro Valdez Guilhon 2011. Nesting Ecology and Nest Predation of Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines, Chelidae) in the Guaporé River of the Brazilian and Bolivian Amazon. Chelonian Conservation and Biology Dec 2011, Vol. 10, No. 2: 206-212. - get paper here
  • Schweigger, A.F. 1812. Prodromus Monographia Cheloniorum auctore Schweigger. Königsberg. Arch. Naturwiss. Mathem., 1: 271-368, 406-458.
  • Silva, Marcélia Basto da; Wáldima Alves da Rocha, Janete Diane Nogueira-Paranhos 2016. CHECKLIST OF REPTILES FROM AN AREA OF CERRADO-CAATINGA ECOTONE, EAST MARANHÃO, BRAZIL. Herpetology Notes 9: 7-14 - get paper here
  • Souza, Franco L. 2004. Uma revisão sobre padrões de atividade, reprodução e alimentação de cágados brasileiros (Testudines, Chelidae) [A review on activity patterns, reproduction, and feeding habits in Brazilian chelid turtles (Testudines, Chelidae)]. Phyllomedusa 3 (1): 15-28 - get paper here
  • Souza, Franco Leandro; Josué Raizer, Higor Thiago Moreira da Costa, and Fernando Ibanez Martins 2008. Dispersal of Phrynops geoffroanus (Chelidae) in an Urban River in Central Brazil. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 7(2): 257
  • Spix, J.B. and J.G. Wagler 1824. Herpetology of Brazil. Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 400 pp.
  • Vieira, Fabiano M., Oliveira, Paola R., Goncalves, Gustavo S., Sousa, Bernadete M., Lima, Sueli de Souza and Novelli, Iara A. 2016. Phrynops geoffroanus (Geoffroy's Side-necked Turtle) Endoparasites Herpetological Review 47 (4): 655
 
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