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Phrynops hilarii (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1835)

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Higher TaxaChelidae, Chelinae, Pleurodira, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesE: Hilaire’s Toadhead Turtle, Hilaire’s Side-necked Turtle
G: Krötenkopfschildkröte
Portuguese: Cágado-Comum, Cágado-de-Barbelas-Cinzento, Cágado-de-Barbilhão 
SynonymPlatemys Hilarii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 428
Spatulemys lasalae GRAY 1872
Spatulemys lasalae — GRAY 1873: 73
Platemys Hilairii [sic] — BOULENGER 1886: 424
Hydraspis Hilairii [sic] — BOULENGER 1888: 122
Hydraspis hilarii — BOULENGER 1889
Hydraspis hilarii — BOHLS 1895
Phrynops hilarii — MERTENS et al. 1934
Phrynops geoffroana hilarii — MÜLLER 1939
Phrynops geoffroanus hilarii — LÜLING 1984
Phrynops hilarii — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Phrynops hilarii — MCCORD et al. 2001
Phrynops hillari — VALVERDE 2010 (in error)
Phrynops hilarii — TTWG 2021 
DistributionBrazil (Rio Grande do Sul), Uruguay, Argentina (Corrientes), Paraguay [ZIEGLER et al. 2002]

Type locality: "Bresil"  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 8757 
CommentFor a color illustration and distribution map see MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2002.

Habitat: freshwater (rivers) 
EtymologyNamed in honor of Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (1805-1861), French zoologist. 
  • Bager, Alex and João L. O. Rosado 2010. Estimation of Core Terrestrial Habitats for Freshwater Turtles in Southern Brazil Based on Nesting Areas. Journal of Herpetology 44 (4): 658–662 - get paper here
  • Baguette Pereiro, B; 2019. Phrynops hilarii (Hilaire’s Side-necked Turtle) Predation. Herpetological Review 50 (3): 561-562 - get paper here
  • Bohls, J. 1895. Bermerkung zur Eintheilung der Chelydidae. Zool. Anz. 18: 51-53 - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1888. Transverse bone of a Chelonian. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 2: 122 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1886. A synopsis of the reptiles and batrachians of the province Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (5) 18: 423-445 - get paper here
  • Bour, R. 2008. Types of three species of sideneck turtle belonging to the genus Phrynops Wagler, 1830: Emys geoffroana Schweigger, 1812, Platemys hilarii Duméril & Bibron, 1835, and Platemys waglerii Duméril & Bibron, 1835. Emys 15 (2):35-41
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Clavijo-Baquet, Sabrina and Larisa Magnone 2017. Daily and Seasonal Basking Behavior in Two South American Freshwater Turtles, Trachemys dorbigni and Phrynops hilarii. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 16 (1): 62-69. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Entiauspe-Neto, Omar Machado; Tângela Denise Perleberg and Marco Antonio de Freitas 2016. Herpetofauna from an urban Pampa fragment in southern Brazil: composition, structure and conservation. Check List 12(5): 1964 - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Fabrezi, M.; Manzano, A.; Abdala, V. & Zaher, H. 2009. Developmental basis of limb homology in Pleurodiran turtles, and the identity of the hooked element in the chelonian tarsus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 155: 845–866 - get paper here
  • Fritz, U. & G. Mann 1993. Werbeverhalten von Phrynops hilarii. Salamandra 29 (3-4): 161-166 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1872. On Spatulemys Lasalae, a new genus of Hydraspidae from Rio Parana, Corrientes. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 10: 463 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1873. Additional notes on Spatulemys Lasalae. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 11: 73-75 - get paper here
  • Grossmann, P. 1986. Zur Haltung und Nachzucht von Phrynops hilarii (DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1835). Sauria 8 (2): 3-6 - get paper here
  • GUIDETTI Brenda YamiIe, SIROSKI PabIo ArieI, AMAVET Patricia Susana 2015. Characterization of the Genetic Diversity of Trachemys dorbigni and Phrynops hilarii. Asian Herpetological Research 6 (3): 213 - get paper here
  • Ingaramo, María del Rosario; Marangoni, Federico; Cajade, Rodrigo 2015. Herpetofauna de la Reserva Paleontológica del Arroyo Toropí, Bella Vista, Corrientes, Argentina. Cuad. herpetol. 29 (1): - get paper here
  • Isabel Koch & Björn Schäfer 2016. Naturnahe Lebensräume in der Wilhelma: lebendiger Amazonas-Biotop aus Menschenhand. Terraria-Elaphe 2016 (2): 14-21 - get paper here
  • Koslowsky,J. 1898. Enumeración sistemática y distribución geográfica de los reptiles argentinos. Rev. Mus. La Plata 8: 161-200 - get paper here
  • Latorre, Maria A.; Evelyn C. López González, Pablo A. Siroski, Gisela L. Poletta 2015. Basal frequency of micronuclei and hematological parameters in the Side-necked Turtle, Phrynops hilarii (Duméril & Bibron, 1835). Acta Herpetologica 10: 31-37 - get paper here
  • Lourenço, João M.; Julien Claude, Nicolas Galtier, Ylenia Chiari 2011. Dating cryptodiran nodes: Origin and diversification of the turtle superfamily Testudinoidea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62 (1): - get paper here
  • Lüling, K.-H. 1984. Auf der Suche nach der Krötenkopf-Schildkröte Phrynops geoffroanus hilarii. Herpetofauna 6 (31): 12-14 - get paper here
  • McCord, W. P., Joseph-Ouni, M.i & W. W. Lamar 2001. A taxonomic reevaluation of Phrynops (Testudines: Chelidae) with the description of two new genera and a new species of Batrachemys. Revista de Biologia Tropical 49 (2): 715-764 - get paper here
  • McCord, W.P. & Joseph-Ouni, M. 2002. Chelonian illustrations #1: South American Toadhead Turtles. Reptilia (GB) (21): 34-38 - get paper here
  • Philippen, H. - D. 2012. Phrynops. Die Gattung der Krötenkopfschildkröten. Reptilia (Münster) 17 (98): 42-48 - get paper here
  • Prieto, Yanina A.; Cecilia Bernardi, Víctor Rozycki, and Adriana S. Manzano 2019. Chemical Composition of the Eggs of the Freshwater Turtle Phrynops hilarii (Chelidae: Testudines). Herp. Conserv. Biology 14 (2): - get paper here
  • Prigioni, C.; C. Borteiro; F. Kolenc. 2011. Amphibia and Reptilia, Quebrada de los Cuervos, Departamento de Treinta y Tres, Uruguay. Check List 7 (6): 763-767 - get paper here
  • Semeñiuk, María B. and Leandro Alcalde 2017. Seasonal activity and basking of the southernmost population of the freshwater turtle Phrynops hilarii (Chelidae). Amphibia-Reptilia - get paper here
  • Semeñiuk, María B.; Leandro Alcalde, Rocío M. Sánchez and María J. Cassano 2017. An Easy, Cheap, and Versatile Method to Trap Turtles, with Calibrated Sampling Effort. South American J. Herp. 12 (2): 107-116. - get paper here
  • Souza, Franco L. 2004. Uma revisão sobre padrões de atividade, reprodução e alimentação de cágados brasileiros (Testudines, Chelidae) [A review on activity patterns, reproduction, and feeding habits in Brazilian chelid turtles (Testudines, Chelidae)]. Phyllomedusa 3 (1): 15-28 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
  • Valverde, J. 2009. Südamerikanische Schildkröten. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (80): 16-27 - get paper here
  • Valverde, J. 2010. Schlangenhalsschildkröten. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (85): 16-23 [erratum in 86: 10] - get paper here
  • Winkler, J.D. 2006. Testing phylogenetic implications of eggshell characters in side-necked turtles (Testudines: Pleurodira). Zoology 109: 127-136 - get paper here
  • ZIEGLER, T., UNGER, J., FEILER, A. & E. LEHR 2002. The first Gran Chaco expedition of the Museum für Tierkunde Dresden: Records of amphibians, reptiles and mammals from the Dry Chaco of Paraguay (Amphibia, Reptilia, Mammalia). Faunistische Abhandlungen, Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde, Dresden 23: 219-238
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