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Phrynosoma bauri MONTANUCCI, 2015

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Baur’s Short-horned Lizard 
SynonymPhrynosoma bauri MONTANUCCI 2015
Phrynosoma douglassi — GENTRY 1885: 140 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi — COPE 1900: 413 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum — VAN DENBURGH 1922: 377(part)
Phrynosoma douglassii brevirostre — SMITH 1946: 302 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum — SMITH 1946: 305 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii brevirostre — REEVE 1952: 913 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum — REEVE 1952: 927 (part)
Phrynosoma hernandezi — ZAMUDIO et al. 1997: 302 (part)
Phrynosoma (Tapaja) hernandezi bauri — DE QUEIROZ in CROTHER et al. 2017 
DistributionUSA (Colorado, Nebraska, SE Wyoming, NE New Mexico)

Type locality: 12.8 km north of Orchard, Morgan County, Colorado  
TypesHolotype: UCM 11356, adult male, collected from 12.8 km north of Orchard, Morgan County, Colorado, by V. Janzen on 10 May 1958 (Fig. 11).
Paratopotypes. UCM 11358–59, both males, collected by V. Janzen on 10 May 1958. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Phrynosoma bauri sp. nov. can be distinguished from other members of the P. douglasii species complex by the following combination of adult characters: (1) snout short, 44.3% ± 0.99 (38.5–50%) of orbit to rostral scale distance; (2) rostrofrontal profile rounded or angular with a steep incline; (3) frontal rim usually elevated above the occipital shelf; (4) enlarged frontal rim scales 2.84 ± 0.23 (1–4)/ 2.65 ± 0.25 (1–4); (5) temporal shelf moderately short, 16.8% ± 0.90 (11.1–24.2%) in males, 18.1% ± 0.82 (12.9–23.0%) in females; (6) temporal shelf weakly to moderately convex; (7) cephalic horns moderately short, third temporal horn length 13.7% ± 0.38 (8.0–18.5%); (8) cephalic horns usually directed upward, ca. 45° to nearly vertical; (9) tympanum elliptic, moderately broad; (10) tympanum exposed; (11) tail moderately long, 226% ± 6.20 (169–279%) in males, 199% ± 4.47 (158–235%) in females; (12) dorsal spots small, wedge-shaped to slightly rounded; (13) light-colored borders of dorsal spots confined to posterior edges; (14) dorsolateral white spots present; (15) gular area with scattered melanistic spots and vermiculations (melanin-dispersed phase); (16) abdomen with large melanistic spots (melanin-dispersed phase); (17) interrupted melanistic subcaudal bands absent or present distally, barely entering ventral surface (melanin-dispersed phase).

Comparisons. P. bauri sp. nov. differs discretely from P. brevirostris in having conspicuous white, rounded, dorsolateral spots. It also differs discretely from P. brevirostris in having rows of large, melanistic spots on the abdomen during the melanin-dispersed phase. By contrast, the abdominal pattern in P. brevirostris consists of scattered gray flecks and patches, or a coalesced, but pale gray suffusion. In P. bauri sp. nov. the nuchal blotches have a well defined yellowish-white, yellow or orange-yellow line bordering the medial and posterior edges. In P. brevirostris, the nuchal blotches usually lack a light-colored border, but if present, it is white, poorly defined, and abbreviated. In P. bauri sp. nov. the frontal rim is typically well defined and elevated above the occipital shelf. In P. brevirostris the frontal rim is weakly defined and not elevated or only slightly elevated above the occipital shelf. P. bauri sp. nov. also has a significantly higher number of enlarged frontal rim scales, a longer temporal shelf, and a longer third temporal horn compared with P. brevirostris. The tail length (as a percentage of head length) does not differ significantly between male samples of the two taxa, but the tail is significantly longer in P. bauri sp. nov. females (Table 3). Comparisons with P. diminutum sp. nov. are discussed in the next account.
Phrynosoma bauri sp. nov. is distinguished from P. h. hernandesi by a shorter snout, a rounded or angular and steeply inclined rostrofrontal profile, a shorter temporal shelf (except P. h. ornatum), and shorter temporal horns (except P. h. ornatum), that are directed upward to nearly vertical. It is further distinguished from P. h. hernandesi and P. h. ornatum by the presence of dorsolateral white spots, and from P. h. ornatum by having a more elevated frontal rim and a higher number of enlarged frontal rim scales. P. bauri sp. nov. can be distinguished from P. o. ornatissimum and P. o. brachycercum by a relatively longer tail, small, wedge-shaped to slightly rounded dorsal spots (except P. o. brachycercum), absence of a discrete yellow and/or white line along the medial border of each dorsal spot (except P. o. brachycercum), a gular pattern of spots and short vermiculations with or without gray suffusion and black spots on the abdomen (melanin-dispersed phase). P. bauri sp. nov. can be distinguished from P. douglasii by its longer temporal shelf that is weakly to moderately convex (rather than strongly convex or rounded), an elevated frontal rim, longer occipital and temporal horns, a somewhat broader elliptic and exposed tympanum. It is further distinguished from P. douglasii by the presence of dorsolateral white spots, a gular pattern of dark spots and/or vermiculations rather than a gray suffusion only, and black spots on the abdomen (melanin-dispersed phase). 
CommentHybridization: P. bauri hybridizes with P. hernandesi (Montanucci 2015). Köhler 2021 synonymized bauri with hernandesi.

Distribution: see map in Montanucci 2015: 169. 
EtymologyThe subspecific epithet bauri is a Latin patronym in the genitive singular, honoring the late Bertrand E. Baur, a longtime friend and avid student of Phrynosoma. Baur died in November of 2013 due to injuries sustained in a car accident the previous year. 
  • Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Ann. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1898: 153-1270 - get paper here
  • Gentry, A.F. 1885. A review of the genus Phrynosoma. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (ser. 3) 37: 138-148 - get paper here
  • MONTANUCCI, RICHARD R. 2015. A taxonomic revision of the Phrynosoma douglasii species complex (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae). Zootaxa 4015 (1): 001–177 - get paper here
  • Reeve, Wayne L. 1952. Taxonomy and distribution of the horned lizard genus Phrynosoma. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34 (14): 817-960 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1946. Handbook of Lizards: Lizards of the United States and of Canada. Comstock, Ithaca, NY, xxii + 557 pp.
  • Van Denburgh, John 1922. The Reptiles of Western North America. Volume I. Lizards. Occ. Pap. Cal. Acad. Sci. (10): 1–612 - get paper here
  • Zamudio, Kelly R., Jones, K. Bruce & Ward, Ryk H. 1997. Molecular systematics of Short-horned lizards: Biogeography and taxonomy of a widespread species complex. Systematic Biology 46 (2): 284-305 - get paper here
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