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Phrynosoma blainvillii GRAY, 1839

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: San Diego Horned Lizard
G: Blainvills Krötenechse
S: Camaleón de Blainville 
SynonymPhrynosoma blainvillii GRAY 1839: 96
Phrynosoma blainvillii —VAN DENBURGH 1895: 118
Phrynosoma blainvillei — COPE 1900
Phrynosoma blainvillii blainvillii — GRINNELL & CAMP 1917: 164
Phrynosoma blainvillii — VAN DENBURGH 1922
Phrynosoma ochoterenai TERRON 1932: 109
Phrynosoma coronatum blainvillii — BURT 1933
Phrynosoma coronatum blainvillii — JENNINGS 1988
Phrynosoma blainvillii — LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006
Phrynosoma blainvillii — LEACHÉ et al. 2009
Phrynosoma (Anota) blainvillii — CROTHER et al. 2012
Phrynosoma coronatum blainvillii — KÖHLER 2021 
DistributionUSA (California),
Mexico (Baja California)

Type locality: “California”. Restricted to “vicinity of San Diego, California” by Klauber (1936).  
TypesHolotype: BMNH (juvenile) 
DiagnosisDefinition. A subspecies with three or more rows of enlarged gular scales on each side, a large postrictal scale, five posteriorly-curved temporal spines, and large, smooth, rounded temporal scales (Jennings 1988). 
CommentSynonymy: Klauber 1936 placed Phrynosoma ochoterenai in the synonymy of P. blainvillii frontale (now = P. coronatum frontale).

Healthy P. coronatum and P. cornutum hybrids have been obtained by BAUR (1983). Brattstrom (1997) concluded that P. coronatum is a highly variable species and thus rejected subspecies. GRISMER & MELLINK (1994) placed P. cerroense in the synonymy of P. coronatum.

Group: Belongs to the Anota clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006. 
EtymologyNamed after Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville. 
  • Burt, Charles E. 1933. Some lizards from the Great Basin of the West and adjacent areas, with comments on the status of various forms. American Midland Naturalist 14: 228-250 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Ann. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1898: 153-1270 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Germano, D.J., and S.M. Hult. 2016. Unusual Mating Position by a Pair of Blainville’s Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma blainvillii) in the San Joaquin Desert, California. Western Wildlife 3:27-28. - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1839. Reptiles. In: J. Richardson et al., The Zoology of Captain Beechey`s Voyage... H.G. Bohn, London, 180 pp. (+ plates) - get paper here
  • Grinnell, J. & CAMP, C.L. 1917. A distributional list of the amphibians and reptiles of California. Univ. California Publ. Zool. 17: 127-208
  • Hult, S.M. 2015. Diet Analysis of a Population of Phrynosoma blainvillii From the San Joaquin Desert, California. Western Wildlife 2:46-47. - get paper here
  • Hult, Susan M. and David J. Germano 2015. Habitat Use and Home Range of Phrynosoma blainvillii in the San Joaquin Desert of California. Herp. Cons. Biol. 10 (3) - get paper here
  • Hult, Susan M. and David J. Germano 2015. Population Structure, Size, and Activity Patterns of Phrynosoma blainvillii in the San Joaquin Desert of California. Herp. Cons. Biol. 10 (3) - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Klauber, L. M. 1936. The Horned Toads of the coronatum Group. Copeia, Vol. 1936, No. 2 (Jul. 31, 1936), pp. 103-110 - get paper here
  • Lara-Reséndiz Rafael A., Arenas-Moreno Diego M., Beltrán-Sánchez Elizabeth, Gramajo Weendii, Verdugo-Molina Javier, Sherbrooke Wade C. et al. 2015. Selected body temperature of nine species of Mexican horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Rev. Mex. Biodiv. 86 (1): 275-278. - get paper here
  • Leaché, A. D., McElroy, M. T. and Trinh, A. 2018. A genomic evaluation of taxonomic trends through time in coast horned lizards (genus Phrynosoma). Mol Ecol. doi:10.1111/mec.14715 - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D. and Jimmy A. McGuire 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of horned lizards (Phrynosoma ) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data: Evidence for a misleading mitochondrial gene tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 (3): 628-644 - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D;.Michelle S. Koo, Carol L. Spencer, Theodore J. Papenfuss, Robert N. Fisher, and Jimmy A. McGuire 2009. Quantifying ecological, morphological, and genetic variation to delimit species in the coast horned lizard species complex (Phrynosoma). PNAS 2009 106:12418-12423 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1939. An annotated list of the Mexican amphibians and reptiles in the Carnegie Museum. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 27: 311-320
  • Stejneger, L.H. 1893. Annotated list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, with descriptions of new species. North American Fauna, No. 7: 159-228 (+ 14 plates + 4 maps) - get paper here
  • Terron 1932. Anal. Inst. Biol. 3: 109
  • Thomson, Robert C.; Amber N. Wright & H. Bradley Shaffer 2016. California Amphibian and Reptile Species of Special Concern. University of California Press - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh, John 1922. The Reptiles of Western North America. Volume I. Lizards. Occ. Pap. Cal. Acad. Sci. (10): 1–612 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2014. Krötenechsen – eine (sehr gute) Laune der Natur. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (107): 16-23
  • Werning, Heiko 2012. Die Reptilien und Amphibien des Südwestens. Draco 13 (50): 18-60 - get paper here
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