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Phrynosoma cornutum (HARLAN, 1825)

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma cornutum - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Texas Horned Lizard
G: Texas-Krötenechse
S: Camaleón Común 
SynonymAgama cornuta HARLAN 1825: 299
Lacerta cornuta — CUVIER 1819: 37 (fide GENTRY 1885)
Tapaya cornuta — CUVIER 1829: 37
Phrynosoma cornutum — GRAY in GRIFFITH 1831: 9
Phrynosoma bufonium WIEGMANN 1828: 367
Phrynosoma harlanii WIEGMANN 1834: 54
Phrynosoma Harlanii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 314
Tropidogaster cornutus — FITZINGER 1843: 79 (fide GENTRY 1885)
Phrynosoma Harlani — NEILL 1846: 99
Phrynosoma planiceps HALLOWELL 1852: 178
Phrynosoma Harlesii — BRÜHL 1886 (in error)
Phrynosoma cornutum planiceps — BOULENGER 1885: 246
Phrynosoma brevicornis E.G. BOULENGER 1916
Phrynosoma cornutum — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 99
Phrynosoma cornutum — STEBBINS 1985: 139
Phrynosoma cornutum — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 112
Phrynosoma cornutum — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma cornutum — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma cornutum cornutum — KÖHLER 2021
Phrynosoma cornutum bufonium — KÖHLER 2021 
DistributionUSA (SE Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, SE Arizona, Texas, NW Louisiana, Oklahoma, North Carolina, introduced to Alabama and Florida),
Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosí, Sonora, Tamaulipas),
Canada (British Columbia [fide BOULENGER 1887])

Type locality: Great Plains east of the Rocky Mountains. Restricted to Fort Riley, Geary County, Kansas.  
TypesHolotype: unknown fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950
Holotype: ANSP 8641, USNM 143 [planiceps] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A single pair of ocupital spines, a single row of enlarged gular scales, two complete rows of lateral abdominal fringe scales, keeled non-mucronate ventral scales, enlarged modified dorsal scales with 4 distinct keels, and the absence of a postrictal scale distinguish Phrynosoma cornutum from all congeners (Price 1990).

Definition (detailed description): Price 1990 
CommentSynonymy after SMITH & TAYLOR 1950. Phrynosoma brevicornis is a mutilated (or abnormal) variant of Phrynosoma cornutum fide Burt 1932.

Hybridization: Healthy P. coronatum and P. cornutum hybrids have been obtained by BAUR (1983).

Population structure: Finger et al. 2022 identified 5 major phylogeographic populations but refrain from taxonomic conclusions given that the detected some gene flow between them.

Diet: primarily ants 
EtymologyThe name cornutum (Latin, “horned”) refers to the distinctive spinose architecture of the head. 
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  • Wilgers, D.J.; Horne, E.A.; Sandercock, B.K. & Volkmann, A.W. 2006. Effects of rangeland management on community dynamics of the herpetofauna of the Tall-grass Prairie [Flint Hills, Kansas/Oklahoma]. Herpetologica 62 (4): 378-388 - get paper here
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  • Winton, W.M. 1917. Habits and Behavior of the Texas Horned Lizard, Phrynosoma cornutum, Harlan. II. Copeia 39: 7-8. - get paper here
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  • Wolf, Alexander J.; Eric C. Hellgren, Victor Bogosian, and Raymond W. Moody 2013. Effects of Habitat Disturbance on Texas Horned Lizards: An Urban Case Study. Herpetologica 69 (3): 265-281. - get paper here
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