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Phrynosoma coronatum (BLAINVILLE, 1835)

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma coronatum - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesPhrynosoma coronatum coronatum (BLAINVILLE 1835)
Phrynosoma coronatum frontale VAN DENBURGH 1894 
Common NamesE: Coast Horned Lizard
blainvillii: San Diego Horned Lizard
frontale: California Horned Lizard
G: Kronen-Krötenechse
S: Camaleón del Litoral 
SynonymAgama (Phrynosoma) coronata BLAINVILLE 1835: 284
Phrynosoma coronatum — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 318
Batrachosoma coronatum — FITZINGER 1843: 79
Phrynosoma coronatum — GENTRY 1885: 143
Phrynosoma coronatum — BOULENGER 1885: 243
Phrynosoma coronatum — VAN DENBURGH 1922
Phrynosoma coronatum coronatum — LINDSDALE 1932
Phrynosoma coronatum coronatum — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 102
Phrynosoma coronatum — STEBBINS 1985: 139
Phrynosoma coronatum — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma coronatum — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma coronatum — KÖHLER 2021

Phrynosoma coronatum frontale VAN DENBURGH 1894
Phrynosoma frontalis VAN DENBURGH 1894: 296
Phrynosoma blainvillii frontale — VAN DENBURGH 1897: 95
Phrynosoma schmidti BARBOUR 1921: 113
Phrynosoma nelsoni SCHMIDT 1922: 666
Phrynosoma coronatum frontale — LINDSDALE 1932: 368
Phrynosoma blainvillii frontale — KLAUBER 1936
Phrynosoma coronatum frontale — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 102
Phrynosoma coronatum frontale — JENNINGS 1988
Phrynosoma coronatum schmidti — JENNINGS 1988
Phrynosoma coronatum frontale — KÖHLER 2021 
DistributionUSA (California), Mexico (Baja California), elevation 0-2348m

Type locality: “California”. Restricted to Cape San Lucas, Baja California by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

frontale: USA (California); Type locality: Bear Valley, San Benito County, Calif.

jamesi: Mexico (Baja California); Type locality: Shore of San Bartolome Bay, Baja California.  
TypesLectotype: MNHN-RA 1921, also given as MCZ 5954
Holotype: USNM 64450 [jamesi]
Holotype: CAS-SUR 93 (Stanford Univ Mus.), male [frontale]
Holotype: MCZ 15142 [schmidti]
Holotype: USNM 37585 [Phrynosoma nelsoni] 
DiagnosisDefinition. Phrynosoma coronatum is a large (65-105 mm SVL), oviparous homed lizard with a dusky-spotted, smooth-scaled venter, two prominent rows of pointed lateral fringe scales (the lower row may be reduced), and 3-4 rows of enlarged gular scales on each side. The dorsal coloration is gray, tan, reddish-brown,or whitish; usually resembling the prevailing soil color. There are two occipital spines, each 3-4 times longer than its basal width, not in contact at the base, and 4-5 temporal spines on each side of the head. The typanum is visible, and there are no dark stripes on the face (Jennings 1988).

Dehition (frontale). A subspecies with three or more rows of enlarged gular scales on each side, a large, spine-like postrictal scale, five closely set, posteriorly-curved, temporal spines gradually increasing in size posteriorly, and small, often pointed, rugose frontal scales (Jennings 1988).

Definition (schmidti). Asubspecieswith three rows of enlargedgular scales on each side, a medium-sized postrictal scale, five laterally-projecting temporal spines (the posterior three greatly enlarged) on each side of the head, small, pointed, rugose frontal scales without dark pigment, and the subrictal scale distinctly above the row of chinshields (Jennings 1988). 
CommentHybridization: Healthy P. coronatum and P. cornutum hybrids have been obtained by BAUR (1983).

Synonymy: mostly after KLAUBER 1936, SMITH & TAYLOR 1950. GRISMER & MELLINK (1994) placed P. cerroense in the synonymy of P. coronatum. Köhler 2021 synonymized Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi with Phrynosoma (coronatum) cerroense.

Subspecies: Brattstrom (1997) concluded that P. coronatum is a highly variable species and thus rejected subspecies. Phrynosoma coronatum blainvillii GRAY 1839 has been elevated to full species status. Grismer 2002 did not use the subspecific name “Phrynosoma coronatum schmidti” but rather referred to the “Schmidti pattern class of Phrynosoma coronatum”. GRISMER & MELLINK (1994) also considered P. coronatum as a monotypic species and did not recognize frontale as a valid subspecies.

Group: Belongs to the Anota clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006. 
EtymologyThe name coronatum (L. "coronatus" = crowned), alludes to the crown-like appearance of the temporal and occipital spines. L. c. frontale was named after the Latin word for "forehead", referring to the diagnostic frontal scales; 
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