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Phrynosoma hernandesi GIRARD, 1858

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma hernandesi - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesPhrynosoma hernandesi hernandesi GIRARD 1858
Phrynosoma hernandesi ornatum GIRARD 1858 
Common NamesE: Mountain Short-horned Lizard; ornatum: Salt Lake Valley Short-horned Lizard
G: Berg-Kurzhornkrötenechse; ornatum: Salt Lake Valley Kurzhornkrötenechse 
SynonymPhrynosoma (Tapaya) hernandesi GIRARD 1858: 395
Phrynosoma hernandezi — GIRARD 1858
Tapaya ornatissima GIRARD 1858: 396
Phrynosoma douglasii ornatum GIRARD 1858: 397
Phrynosoma douglasii hernandesi — VAN DENBURGH 1922
Phrynosoma douglasii hernandesi — BURT 1935
Phrynosoma orbiculare hernandesi — KLAUBER 1939: 91
Phrynosoma hernandesi — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 100
Phrynosoma douglassi hernandesi — VAN DEVENDER & LOWE 1977
Phrynosoma douglasii hernandesi — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 114
Phrynosoma douglasii hernandesi — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma hernandesi — ZAMUDIO et al. 1997
Phrynosoma hernandesi — SMITH et al. 1999
Phrynosoma hernandesi — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Phrynosoma (Tapaja) hernandesi — CROTHER et al. 2012

Phrynosoma hernandesi hernandesi GIRARD 1858
Phrynosoma (Tapaya) hernandesi GIRARD 1858: 395
Phrynosoma (Tapaya) ornatissima GIRARD 1858: 396 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassi — GENTRY 1885: 140 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi — COPE 1900: 413
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum — COPE 1900: 415 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum — VAN DENBURGH 1922: 377 (part)Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi — VAN DENBURGH 1922: 382
Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi — SMITH 1946: 304
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum — SMITH 1946: 305 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi — REEVE 1952: 922
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum — REEVE 1952: 927 (part)
Phrynosoma hernandezi — ZAMUDIO et al. 1997: 302
Phrynosoma hernandesi hernandesi — MONTANUCCI 2015: 51

Phrynosoma hernandesi ornatum GIRARD 1858
Phrynosoma ornatum GIRARD 1858: pl. 21
Phrynosoma douglassi — GENTRY 1885:140 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi — COPE 1900:413 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi — RICHARDSON 1915:423 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatum — STEJNEGER 1919:3.
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum — VAN DENBURGH 1922:377 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatum — SMITH 1946:307.
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum — SMITH 1946:305 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii douglassii — REEVE 1952:918 (part)
Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi — REEVE 1952:922 (part)
Phrynosoma hernandezi — ZAMUDIO et al. 1997: 302 (part)
Phrynosoma hernandesi ornatum — MONTANUCCI 2015: 61 
DistributionCanada (Alberta, Saskatchewan)
USA (New Mexico, W Texas, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, South Dakota, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon)
Mexico (NE Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango)

hernandesi: Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan), USA (New Mexico, W Texas, Utah, Colorado, Arizona, South Dakota), Mexico (NE Sonora, Chihuahua; Type locality: New Mexico and Sonora. Restricted to Santa Fe, New Mexico by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950. Resetricted to Fort Huachuca, Cochise County, Arizona by MONTANUCCI 2015.

ornatum: Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah; Type locality: valley of the Great Salt Lake, Utah Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesLectoype: USNM 197; paralectotype: USNM 198 (Stejneger 1890:113 referred to USNM 107 and 198 as “Girard’s types” of P. hernandesi but the number 107 is a typographical error fide Reeve 1952:923, Montanucci 2015).
Holotype: USNM 234, a female; UMMZ 3849 fide Banta 1970 but in error fide Montanucci 2010 who concluded that USNM 234 is the holotype [ornatum]
Syntypes: (3) ANSP 8700-02 [Tapaya ornatissima] 
CommentThe subspecies brevirostre, hernandesi, and ornatissimum are artificial assemblages of populations (Zamudio et al. 1997).

Hybridization: Phrynosoma hernandesi hybridizes with P. ornatissimum in Arizona and with P. bauri in Colorado (Montanucci 2015).

Habitat: montane

Group: Belongs to the Tapaja clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006.

Diagnosis. Phrynosoma h. hernandesi can be distinguished from other members of the P. douglasii species complex by the following combination of adult characters: (1) snout protruding, 49.4% ± 1.56 (42.5–57.3%) of orbit to rostral scale distance; (2) rostrofrontal profile rather flat, gradually sloping; (3) frontal rim usually elevated above the occipital shelf; (4) enlarged frontal rim scales 2.96 ± 0.15 (2–4) / 2.93 ± 0.13 (2–4); (5) temporal shelf long, 25.7% ± 0.96 (18.9–32.3%) in males, 26.1% ± 0.79 (17.2–36.2%) in females; (6) temporal shelf flat to weakly convex; (7) cephalic horns moderately long, third temporal horn length 18.2% ± 0.46 (10.3–24.1%); (8) cephalic horns directed horizontally or only slightly elevated; (9) tympanum elliptic, moderately broad to broad; (10) tympanum exposed; (11) tail moderately long, 247% ± 8.87 (187–301%) in males, 219% ± 4.84 (175–272%) in females; (12) dorsal spots wedge-shaped or forming transverse bands; (13) light-colored borders of dorsal spots confined to posterior edges; (14) dorsolateral white spots absent; (15) gular area with melanistic vermiculations and relatively few spots, with or without gray suffusion (melanin-dispersed phase); (16) abdomen with large melanistic spots or coalescing into dark suffusion (melanin-dispersed phase); (17) interrupted melanistic subcaudal bands present; bands may be complete distally (melanin-dispersed phase) [Montanucci 2015: 53].

Comparisons. Phrynosoma h. hernandesi can be distinguished from P.bauri sp. nov., P. brevirostris, P. diminutum sp. nov., and P. douglasii by its protruding snout, gradually sloping rostrofrontal profile, frontal rim elevated above the occipital shelf (except P. bauri sp. nov.), high number of enlarged frontal rim scales, longer temporal shelf, and longer occipital and temporal horns that are usually directed horizontally. It is further distinguished from P. brevirostris and P. douglasii by the presence of large, melanistic abdominal spots, and interrupted or complete melanistic subcaudal bands (melanin-dispersed phase). P. h. hernandesi can be further distinguished from P. douglasii by an elliptic tympanum that is comparatively broad and naked, and by its large adult size. P. h. hernandesi can be distinguished from P. ornatissimum by its protruding snout and gradually sloping rostrofrontal profile, longer occipital and temporal horns that are horizontally directed or only slightly elevated, a relatively longer tail, absence of a discrete white and/or yellow line along the medial edge of each dorsal spot (except P. o. brachycercum), presence of wedge-shaped dorsal spots or dorsal cross-bands (except P. o. brachycercum), and in the melanin-dispersed phase, a gular pattern of vermiculations and relatively few spots with or without gray suffusion (as opposed to chevrons or wavy transverse bands), an abdominal pattern of large melanistic spots more or less in rows, and the presence of complete and/or interrupted melanistic subcaudal bands. Note that P. h. hernandesi has a significantly longer snout (ENR), more extensive temporal shelf (TRE), longer temporal horn (TH), and longer tail (TL) than all other taxa in the complex (Table 3).

In the Colorado Plateau region of Utah, where P. h. hernandesi may occur in proximity to P. brevirostris, the two taxa may be distinguished, in addition to the characters mentioned above, by the usual presence of red pigment on the temporal shelf and horns as well as red pigment above the lateral fringe scales of the former species [Montanucci 2015: 54].

Diagnosis. Phrynosoma hernandesi ornatum can be distinguished from other members of the P. douglasii species complex by the following combination of adult characters: (1) snout truncate to more or less protruding, 45.3% ± 1.62 (39.2–54.2%) of orbital to rostral distance; (2) rostrofrontal profile gradually rounded or obtusely angular to flat and gradually sloping; (3) frontal rim not elevated, or only slightly elevated above the occipital shelf; (4) enlarged frontal rim scales 1.64 ± 0.28 (0–3) / 1.77 ± 0.29 (0–3); (5) temporal shelf moderately short, 17.3% ± 0.83 (13.2–22.6%) in males, 19.8% ± 0.73 (11.8–27.0%) in females; (6) temporal shelf flat or weakly to moderately convex; (7) cephalic horns moderately short, third temporal horn length 13.9% ± 0.38 (8.8–21.0%); (8) cephalic horns directed horizontally or elevated (ca. 45°); (9) tympanum elliptic, moderately broad to broad; (10) tympanum exposed; (11) tail moderately long, 222% ± 6.41 (188–271%) in males, 199% ± 3.66 (161–235%) in females; (12) dorsal spots wedge-shaped or forming transverse bands; (13) light-colored borders of dorsal spots confined to posterior edges; (14) dorsolateral white spots absent; (15) gular area with vermiculations and scattered melanistic spots, with or without gray suffusion (melanin-dispersed phase); (16) abdomen with large melanistic spots or scattered flecks (melanin-dispersed phase); (17) interrupted and/or complete melanistic subcaudal bands present (melanin-dispersed phase) [Montanucci 2015: 61].

Comparisons. Phrynosoma hernandesi ornatum can be distinguished from the nominate race by a less protruding snout and usually more rounded or angular rostrofrontal profile, a frontal rim not elevated or only slightly elevated above the occipital shelf, a significantly lower mean number of enlarged frontal rim scales, a temporal shelf more or less convex and less produced lateroposteriorly, and shorter occipital and temporal horns on average (except when compared with Wasatch Range P. hernandesi). About 18.5% of P. h. ornatum have a more or less flattened temporal shelf compared with 54% of the nominotypical hernandesi having a flattened temporal shelf. This race also has a higher percentage of upward-directed occipital horns compared with New Mexico and Arizona samples of P. hernandesi, but not Utah samples (see Variation).

P. h. ornatum can be distinguished from P. bauri sp. nov., P. brevirostris, P. diminutum sp. nov. and P. douglasii by its slightly protruding snout and gradually rounded rostrofrontal profile, longer temporal shelf (except P. bauri sp. nov.) and longer occipital and temporal horns (except P. bauri sp. nov.). It is further distinguished from these taxa by the usual presence of red pigment on the cephalic horns, presence of pink or red pigment on gular and chest areas, and in the melanin-dispersed phase, the presence of large, melanistic abdominal spots (except P. bauri sp. nov. and P. diminutum sp. nov.) or scattered flecks (except P. brevirostris), and interrupted or complete melanistic subcaudal bands. P. h. ornatum can be further distinguished from P. douglasii by its comparatively broad, elliptic, and exposed tympanum, and by its large adult size. P. h. ornatum can be distinguished from P. ornatissimum by a more protruding snout and gradually sloping rostrofrontal profile, a slightly shorter temporal shelf, a relatively longer tail, absence of a discrete white and/or yellow line along the medial edge of each dorsal spot (except P. o. brachycercum), absence of dorsolateral white spots (except most P. o. brachycercum), wedge- shaped dorsal spots or dorsal cross-bands (except P. o. brachycercum), presence of reddish color on the cephalic horns contrasting with the general hue of the head, and in the melanin-dispersed phase, a gular pattern of gray suffusion with spots and vermiculations (as opposed to chevrons or wavy and irregular transverse bands), presence of large melanistic spots on the abdomen, and the presence of melanistic subcaudal bands [Montanucci 2015: 62].

Distribution: see maps 3, 5, 7, 9, 14, 18, 19 in Montanucci 2015. See also locality lists in Montanucci 2015: 137 (hernandesi) and Montanucci 2015: 151 (ornatum). 
EtymologyNamed after Francisco Hernandez (1514-1587), Spanish physician who travelled in Mexico to study Aztec herbal medicine and to collect biological specimens. The correct spelling of the specific epithet is with an “s” (see Smith et al. 1999).

ornatum: The Latin word ornatus –a - um, (participle of the verb orno), meaning “adorned” or “decorated” or “embellished”. As no type description exists, one can only speculate as to Girard’s intended reference, but possibly to contrasting dark and light-colored markings on the dorsum. 
References
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