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Phrynosoma mcallii (HALLOWELL, 1852)

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma mcallii - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Flat-tail Horned Lizard
G: Flachschwanzkrötenechse
S: Camaleón de Cola Plana 
SynonymAnota M’Callii HALLOWELL 1852: 122
Doliosaurus m’calli — GIRARD 1858: 408
Phrynosoma Maccalli — GENTRY 1885: 148
Phrynosoma maccallii — BOULENGER 1885: 246
Phrynosoma m’calli — STEJNEGER 1893: 190
Anota mcallii — COPE 1900
Phrynosoma m’callii — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 99
Phrynosoma mcallii — FUNK 1981
Phrynosoma mcallii — STEBBINS 1985: 141
Phrynosoma mcallii — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma mcallii — PIANKA & VITT 2003: 68
Phrynosoma (Anota) mcallii — CROTHER et al. 2012
Phrynosoma mcallii — KÖHLER 2021 
DistributionUSA (SE California, SW Arizona),
Mexico (NE Baja California Norte, NW Sonora)

Type locality: Great Desert of the Colorado, between Vallecita and Camp Yuma, about 200 miles east of San Diego.  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 8680 (fide MALNATE 1971)
Holotype: unknown fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A moderate-sized (maximum snout-vent length about 82 mm), oviparous species of Phrynosoma, with an immaculate white venter, a narrow dark middorsal stripe from head to tail base, and a dorso-ventrally flattened tail. The dorsal coloration is gray, tan, reddish-brown, or whitish. There are two occipital spines 3-4 times longer than basal width, and not in contact at the base, and three temporal spines on each side. The nostrils lie within the canthal ridge. There is a single row of enlarged lateral gular scales, and the lateral abdominal fringe consists of 2 (occasionally 3) rows of spines. The ventral scales are smooth, and the peritoneum is black. The tympanum is not evident externally (Funk 1981). 
CommentDistribution: see map in Mulcahy et al. 2006: 1809 (Fig. 3). 
Etymologynamed after Colonel George A. M'Call who collected the first specimen. 
  • Aguilar-Morales, Cecilia and Thomas R. Van Devender 2018. Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma) of Sonora, Mexico: Distribution and Ecology. Sonoran Herpetologist 31 (3): 40-50 - get paper here
  • Baur, B.E. 1986. Longevity of horned lizards of the genus Phrynosoma. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 22 (3): 149-151 - get paper here
  • Beauchamp, B., B. Wone, S. Bros & M. Kutilek 1998. Habitat Use of the Flat-tailed Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii) in a Disturbed Environment Journal of Herpetology 32 (2): 210-216. - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Bezy, R. L., P. C. Rosen, T. R. Van Devender, and E. F. Enderson. 2017. Southern distributional limits of the Sonoran Desert herpetofauna along the mainland coast of northwestern Mexico. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(1): 138–167 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Chavez, Jorge 2016. Phrynosoma mcallii (Flat-tailed Horned Lizard) Ultraviolet (UVB) exposure. Herpetological Review 47 (4): 671-672 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Ann. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1898: 153-1270 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Crumbo, Woodrow L. and Daniel J. Leavitt. 2014. Phrynosoma mcallii (flat-tailed horned lizard) late season courtship behavior. Herpetological Review 45 (4): 698 - get paper here
  • Donaldson, W.L. 1995. Conservation of the Flat-tailed Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii) in Arizona. Sonoran Herpetologist 8 (2):12-14. - get paper here
  • Fabian, B. F 2014. Überlegungen zur Ernährung von Krötenechsen. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (107): 24-29
  • Funk, R.S. 1981. Phrynosoma mcallii (Halowell): Flat-tailed horned lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 281 - get paper here
  • Gentry, A.F. 1885. A review of the genus Phrynosoma. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (ser. 3) 37: 138-148 - get paper here
  • Girard, Charles F. 1858. United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, Under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. 20. Herpetology. C. Sherman & Son, Philadelphia, xv, 492 pages [see note in Zhao and Adler 1993: 369] - get paper here
  • González-Romero, A., & Alvarez-Cárdenas, S. 1989. Herpetofauna de la Region del Pinacate, Sonora, Mexico: Un Inventario. The Southwestern Naturalist, 34(4), 519–526 - get paper here
  • Hallowell,E. 1852. Descriptions of new species of reptiles inhabiting North America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 6: 177-182 - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1932. The flat-tailed horned toad in Lower California. Copeia 1932 (2): 100 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Rorabaugh JC 2019. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sonora, Mexico, with updated species lists. ZooKeys 829: 131-160 - get paper here
  • Malnate, Edmond V. 1971. A catalogue of primary types in the Herpetological Collections of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (ANSP). Proccedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 123 (9): 345-375 - get paper here
  • Mayhew, W.W. & S.J. Wright 1971. Water Impermable Skin of the Lizard Phrynosoma m'calli. Herpetologica 27 (1): 8-11. - get paper here
  • Meyers, J.J.; Herrel, A. & Nishikawa, K. 2006. Morphological correlates of ant eating in horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89: 13–24 - get paper here
  • Mulcahy, Daniel G.; Allen W. Spaulding, Joseph R. Mendelson III & Edmund D. Brodie, Jr. 2006. Phylogeography of the Flat-tailed Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii) and systematics of the P. mcallii–platyrhinos mtDNA complex. Molecular Ecology 15(0): 1–20 - get paper here
  • Park, Brian, Jessica S. Reimche, Mickey Parker and Matt Goode. 2016. Phrynosoma mcallii (Flat-tailed Horned Lizard) Necrophilia. Herpetological Review 47 (1): 139 - get paper here
  • Pianka, E.R. & Vitt, L.J. 2003. Lizards - Windows to the Evolution of Diversity. University of California Press, Berkeley, 347 pp. [review in Copeia 2004: 955] - get paper here
  • Presch,W. 1969. Evolutionary osteology and relationships of the horned lizard genus Phrynosoma (family Iguanidae). Copeia 1969 (2): 250-275 - get paper here
  • Reeder,T.W. & Montanucci,R.R. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of the horned lizards (Phrynomomatidae: Phrynosoma): evidence from mitochondrial DNA and morphology. Copeia 2001 (2): 309-323 - get paper here
  • Sherbrooke, Wade C. 2003. Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, 178 pp. - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stejneger, L.H. 1893. Annotated list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, with descriptions of new species. North American Fauna, No. 7: 159-228 (+ 14 plates + 4 maps) - get paper here
  • Sullivan, Brian K. 2016. Book Review: Track & Signs of Reptiles and Amphibians: a Guide to North American Species. Herpetological Review 47 (1): 158-160 - get paper here
  • Thomson, Robert C.; Amber N. Wright & H. Bradley Shaffer 2016. California Amphibian and Reptile Species of Special Concern. University of California Press - get paper here
  • Turner, F. B.;Medica, P. A. 1982. The distribution and abundance of the flat-tailed horned lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii). Copeia 1982 (4): 815-823 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2014. Krötenechsen – eine (sehr gute) Laune der Natur. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (107): 16-23
  • Wone, B. & B. Beauchamp 2003. Movement, Home Range, and Activity Patterns of the Horned Lizard, Phrynosoma mcallii Journal of Herpetology 37 (4): 679-686. - get paper here
  • Young, Kevin V.; Edmund D. Brodie Jr. & Edmund D. Brodie III 2004. How the Horned Lizard Got Its Horns. Science 304 (5667): 65 [discussion in305: 1909 and 306: 230] - get paper here
  • Zweifel,R.G. and Norris,K.S. 1955. Contributions to the herpetology of Sonora, Mexico:Descriptions of new subspecies of snakes (Micruroides euryxanthus and Lampropeltis getulus) and miscellaneous collecting notes. American Midland Naturalist 54: 230-249 - get paper here
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