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Phrynosoma orbiculare (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma orbiculare - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesPhrynosoma orbiculare bradti HOROWITZ 1955
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii (DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870)
Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesii (DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870)
Phrynosoma orbiculare orbiculare (LINNAEUS 1758)
Phrynosoma orbiculare orientale HOROWITZ 1955 
Common NamesE: Mountain Horned Lizard
G: Mexikanische Kurzhorn-Krötenechse 
SynonymLacerta orbicularis LINNAEUS 1758: 206
Lacerta orbicularis — GMELIN in LINNAEUS 1789: 1062
Agama orbicularis — DAUDIN 1805: 406 (fide GENTRY 1885)
Agama orbiculare — CUVIER 1817: 35
Phrynosoma orbiculare — WIEGMANN 1828: 367
Phrynosoma orbiculare — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 321
Phrynosoma wiegmanni GRAY 1839: 96
Phrynosoma orbiculare — SUMICHRAST 1864: 507
Phrynosoma orbicularis — GENTRY 1885: 142
Phrynosoma orbiculare — BOULENGER 1885: 241
Tapaya orbicularis longicaudatus DUGÈS 1888: 117
Phrynosoma orbiculare orbiculare — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 97
Phrynosoma orbiculare alticola DAVIS 1953: 27 (preliminary)
Phrynosoma orbiculare — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma orbiculare alticola — CASTRO-FRANCO & BUSTOS-ZAGAL 2003
Phrynosoma orbiculare orbiculare — LINER 2007

Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti HOROWITZ 1955
Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti HOROWITZ 1955:
Phrynosoma orbiculare orbiculare — TAYLOR & KNOBLOCH 1940: 125
Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti — VAN DEVENDER & LOWE 1977
Phrynosoma orbiculare durangoensis HOROWITZ 1955 (fide MONTANUCCI 1979)
Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti — WEBB 1984
Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti — LEMOS-ESPINAL et al. 2004
Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti — LINER 2007

Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii (DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870)
Tapaya cortezii DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870
Tapaya Boucardi DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870: 225
Phrynosoma Boucardi — GENTRY 1885: 142
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii — BOULENGER 1885: 242
Phrynosoma boucardii — BOULENGER 1885: 243
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii — SMITH 1934
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii — SMITH 1939
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 98
Phrynosoma orbiculare boucardi — MONTANUCCI 1979
Phrynosoma orbiculare boucardii — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii — BARAJAS et al. 2007

Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesii (DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870)
Tapaya Dugesii DUMÉRIL & BOCOURT 1870
Phrynosoma orbiculare (var.) dugesii — BOULENGER 1885: 243
Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesii — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 98
Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesi — MONTANUCCI 1979
Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesii — LINER 2007

Phrynosoma orbiculare orientale HOROWITZ 1955
Phrynosoma orbiculare orientale — LINER 2007 
DistributionMexico (Puebla, Distrito Federal, Guerrero [HR 31: 54], Hidalgo, Morelos, Coahuila, Chihuahua, Jalisco, Durango, Guanajuato, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, Nuevo León, Tlaxcala, Michoacán, Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Sonora, Oaxaca)

Type locality: Mexico (by inference). Restricted to México, Distrito Federal, by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

bradti: Mexico (Durango, Chihuahua); Type locality: Caborachic, Chihuahua, Mexico. The location of Caborachic is given by the collector as 15 miles south of Guachochic, Chihuahua, at an elevation of 8000 feet.

boucardii: Mexico (Hidalgo); Type locality: "Plateau of Mexico," restricted to Zimapan, Hidalgo by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.

cortezii: Mexico (Puebla, Veracruz); Type locality: “"Hacienda del Jasmin," between "Orisaba and Cordoba," Veracruz.

dugesii: Mexico (Colima, Jalisco); Type locality: “Colima”.

orientale: eMxico (San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon.); Type locality: Miquihuana,Tamaulipas, Mexico. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionviviparous 
TypesHolotype: “Presumably the unnumbered figure in Hernandez 1651 Plantas y animales de la Nueva Espana, etc., C. xvi, p. 327” (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 97)
Holotype: MNHN [cortezii]
Syntypes: MNHN [dugesii]
Holotype: MNHN [boucardii]
Holotype: AMNH R68359 [durangoensis]
Holotype: AMNH R68962 [bradti]
Holotype: MCZ 19561 [orientale]
Holotype: MDUG HE 422 [Tapaya orbicularis longicaudatus] 
CommentSynonymy and subspecies after SMITH & TAYLOR 190 and GENTRY 188. HERNANDEZ 161: 327 mentioned Lacertus orbicularis (fide GENTRY 188). Numerous intergrade zones between the various subspecies appear to exist (Horowitz, 19; Montanucci, 1979) and to such a degree that P. orbiculare was considered one variable monotypic species (McDiarmid, 1963). Barajas et al. 2013 synonymized Phrynosoma orbiculare boucardii with Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii.

Habitat: montane

Original description: “L. cauda tereti brevi, trunco subgloboso supra muricato” (LINNAEUS 178: 206).

Phylogeny: Belongs to the Tapaja clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006. Bryson et al. (2012) found nearly precise overlapping distributions of genetic lineages with morphologically distinct subspecies.

Diagnosis: see HOROWITZ 19, for all subspecies.

Type species: Lacerta orbicularis LINNAEUS 178: 206 is the type species of the genus Phrynosoma WIEGMANN 1828: 367. 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin word orbis, meaning "round," and the suffix -culare, meanmg small, probably in reference to the shape and size of the body. 
References
  • Barajas, Ruth Moreno; Felipe Rodríguez-Romero, Alma S. Velázquez Rodríguez, and Fausto R. Méndez de la Cruz 2013. Taxonomic Assessment of the Subspecific Status of Phrynosoma orbiculare (Sauria: Phrynosomatidae) In the Southern Portion of Its Distribution. The Southwestern Naturalist Dec 2013, Vol. 58, No. 4: 459-464. - get paper here
  • Blatchley, W.S. 1893. On a collection of batrachians and reptiles from Mount Orizaba, Mexico, with descriptions of two new species. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 16: 37-42 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Bryson, Robert W.; Uri Omar García-Vázquez, Brett R. Riddle 2011. Diversification in the Mexican horned lizard Phrynosoma orbiculare across a dynamic landscape. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62 (1): 87-96 - get paper here
  • Castro Franco, R. & M. G. Bustos-Zagal 2003. Lagartijas de Morelos, México: distribución, hábitat y conservación. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 88:123-142
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  • Cuvier, G. 1817. Le règne animal distribué d’après son organisation, pour servir de base a l’historire naturelle des animaux et d’introduction a l’anatomie comparée. Vol. 2. Les reptiles, les poissons, les mollusques et les annélides. Déterville, Paris - get paper here
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  • Duméril,A.; M. F. Bocourt, and F. Mocquard 1870. Etudes sur les reptiles, p. i-xiv, 1-1012. In: Recherches Zoologiques pour servir a l'Histoire de Ia Faune de l'Amérique Centrale et du Mexique. Mission Scientifique au Mexique et dans l'Amérique Centrale, Recherches zoologiques. Imprimerie Imper., Paris - get paper here
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  • Ibarra-Contreras, Clarita Alicia, Uri Omar García-Vázquez, Elí García-Padilla, Vicente Mata-Silva, Dominic L. DeSantis, Jerry D. Johnson and Larry David Wilson. 2016. Phrynosoma orbiculare (Linnaeus, 1758). Mexico, Oaxaca. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3(4): 1046–1047 - get paper here
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