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Phrynosoma solare GRAY, 1845

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma solare - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Regal Horned Lizard
G: Vierhorn-Krötenechse 
SynonymPhrynosoma solaris GRAY 1845: 229
Phrynosoma solare — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 115
Phrynosoma regale GIRARD 1858: 406
Phrynosoma regale — GENTRY 1885: 146
Phrynosoma regale — BOULENGER 1885: 245
Phrynosoma regale — DITMARS 1911
Phrynosoma solare — BURT 1933
Phrynosoma solare — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 104
Phrynosoma solare — STEBBINS 1985: 142
Phrynosoma solare — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma solare — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma (Anota) solare — CROTHER et al. 2012 
DistributionUSA (S Arizona, New Mexico),
Mexico (Sonora, N Sinaloa, Baja California)

Type locality: California (in error). Restricted to Yuma, Arizona by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous. 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 
CommentGroup: Belongs to the Anota clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006.

Diet: With 89% of its diet being ants this species seems to be the most dependent and specialized on ants (Fabian 2014). 
References
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1933. Some lizards from the Great Basin of the West and adjacent areas, with comments on the status of various forms. American Midland Naturalist 14: 228-250 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Ditmars, Raymond L. 1911. Reptiles of all lands. National Geographic 22(7): 601-633
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • Fabian, B. F 2014. Überlegungen zur Ernährung von Krötenechsen. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (107): 24-29
  • FLESCH, AARON D.; DON E. SWANN, DALE S. TURNER, AND BRIAN F. POWELL 2010. HERPETOFAUNA OF THE RINCON MOUNTAINS, ARIZONA. Southwestern Naturalist 55(2):240–253 - get paper here
  • Gentry, A.F. 1885. A review of the genus Phrynosoma. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (ser. 3) 37: 138-148 - get paper here
  • Girard, Charles F. 1858. United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, Under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. 20. Herpetology. C. Sherman & Son, Philadelphia, xv, 492 pages [see note in Zhao and Adler 1993: 369] - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Lara-Reséndiz Rafael A., Arenas-Moreno Diego M., Beltrán-Sánchez Elizabeth, Gramajo Weendii, Verdugo-Molina Javier, Sherbrooke Wade C. et al. 2015. Selected body temperature of nine species of Mexican horned lizards (Phrynosoma) Rev. Mex. Biodiv. 86 (1): 275-278. - get paper here
  • Lara-Resendiz, Rafael A., Rodrigo Garcia-Figueroa and Ramón F. Ochoa-Jara. 2016. Phrynosoma solare. Nocturnal activity. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3(4): 1010–1011 - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D. and Jimmy A. McGuire 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of horned lizards (Phrynosoma ) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data: Evidence for a misleading mitochondrial gene tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 (3): 628-644 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Meyers, J.J.; Herrel, A. & Nishikawa, K. 2006. Morphological correlates of ant eating in horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89: 13–24 - get paper here
  • Painter, Charles W. 1993. Phrynosoma solare (regal horned lizard). USA: New Mexico. Herpetological Review 24 (4): 155 - get paper here
  • Parker, W.S. 1974. Phrynosoma solare (Gray): Regal horned lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 162: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Parker, William S. 1971. Ecological observations on the regal horned lizard (Phrynosoma solare) in Arizona. Herpetologica 27 (3): 333-338 - get paper here
  • Reeder,T.W. & Montanucci,R.R. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of the horned lizards (Phrynomomatidae: Phrynosoma): evidence from mitochondrial DNA and morphology. Copeia 2001 (2): 309-323 - get paper here
  • Sherbrooke, Wade C. 2003. Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, 178 pp.
  • Skubowius, Bernd 2012. Echsen, Schildkröten, Amphibien und Spinnentiere – die vielfältige Welt der „creeping crawlers“ in Arizona. Draco 13 (50): 70-78 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Sullivan, B.K., and E.A. Sullivan. 2016. Late fall and early winter activity by hatchling and adult Regal Horned Lizards, Phrynosoma solare. Sonoran Herpetologist 29 (1):5-6. - get paper here
  • Sullivan, Brian K., Elizabeth A. Sullivan, Keith O. Sullivan and Hunter McCall. 2014. Geographical Distribution: Phrynosoma solare (regal horned lizard). Herpetological Review 45 (4): 660-661
  • Taylor, Edward Harrison 1938. Notes on the herpetological fauna of the Mexican state of Sonora. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 24 (19): 475-503 [1936] - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2014. Krötenechsen – eine (sehr gute) Laune der Natur. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (107): 16-23
  • Werning, H. 2015. Jurassic World im Wohnzimmer. Mini-Dinos für das Terrarium Reptilia (Münster) 20 (114): 26-37 - get paper here
  • Zweifel,R.G. and Norris,K.S. 1955. Contributions to the herpetology of Sonora, Mexico:Descriptions of new subspecies of snakes (Micruroides euryxanthus and Lampropeltis getulus) and miscellaneous collecting notes. American Midland Naturalist 54: 230-249 - get paper here
 
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