You are here » home advanced search search results Phrynosoma solare

Phrynosoma solare GRAY, 1845

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma solare - Least Concern, LC

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Phrynosoma solare?

Add your own observation of
Phrynosoma solare »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Regal Horned Lizard
G: Vierhorn-Krötenechse
S: Camaleón Real 
SynonymPhrynosoma solaris GRAY 1845: 229
Phrynosoma solare — VAN DENBURGH 1895: 115
Phrynosoma regale GIRARD 1858: 406
Phrynosoma regale — GENTRY 1885: 146
Phrynosoma regale — BOULENGER 1885: 245
Phrynosoma solare — COPE 1900
Phrynosoma regale — DITMARS 1911
Phrynosoma solare — BURT 1933
Phrynosoma solare — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 104
Phrynosoma solare — PARKER 1974
Phrynosoma solare — STEBBINS 1985: 142
Phrynosoma solare — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma solare — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma (Anota) solare — CROTHER et al. 2012
Phrynosoma (Anota) solare — DE QUEIROZ in CROTHER et al. 2017
Phrynosoma solare — KÖHLER 2021 
DistributionUSA (S Arizona, New Mexico),
Mexico (Sonora, N Sinaloa, Baja California)

Type locality: California (in error). Restricted to Yuma, Arizona by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH XXIII.125.d,
Syntype: USNM 161, 131664 [Phrynosoma regale] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Phrynosoma solare is one of the larger members of the genus (maximum snout·vent length 117 mm in females; 95 mm in males), with four (rarely only two) equal sized occipital spines, which form a continuous series with the large temporal spines on the posterior edge of the head. The bases of the occipital spines are close together. The nostrils lie within the canthal ridge. There are two scale rows in the lateral abdominal fringe, and the ventral scales are keeled (Parker 1974). 
CommentGroup: Belongs to the Anota clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006.

Diet: With 89% of its diet being ants this species seems to be the most dependent and specialized on ants (Fabian 2014). 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin word solaris = "of the sun." 
  • Aguilar-Morales, Cecilia and Thomas R. Van Devender 2018. Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma) of Sonora, Mexico: Distribution and Ecology. Sonoran Herpetologist 31 (3): 40-50 - get paper here
  • Axtell, R.W. 1986. The Epipterygoids in Phrynosoma solare, Still Present, but Disappearing Journal of Herpetology 20 (1): 79-81. - get paper here
  • Baharav, D. 1975. Movement of the Horned Lizard Phrynosoma solare Copeia 1975 (4): 649-657. - get paper here
  • Baur, B.E. 1986. Longevity of horned lizards of the genus Phrynosoma. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 22 (3): 149-151 - get paper here
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Charles J. Cole 2014. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Madrean Archipelago of Arizona and New Mexico. American Museum Novitates (3810): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1933. Some lizards from the Great Basin of the West and adjacent areas, with comments on the status of various forms. American Midland Naturalist 14: 228-250 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Ann. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1898: 153-1270 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Cutter, W.L. 1959. An Instance of Blood-Squirting by Phrynosoma solare Copeia 1959 (2): 176. - get paper here
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Ditmars, Raymond L. 1911. Reptiles of all lands. National Geographic 22(7): 601-633
  • Enderson, Erik F.; Thomas R. Van Devender, Robert L. Bezy 2014. Amphibians and reptiles of Yécora, Sonora and the Madrean Tropical Zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental in northwestern Mexico. Check List 10 (4): 913-926 - get paper here
  • Fabian, B. F 2014. Überlegungen zur Ernährung von Krötenechsen. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (107): 24-29
  • FLESCH, AARON D.; DON E. SWANN, DALE S. TURNER, AND BRIAN F. POWELL 2010. HERPETOFAUNA OF THE RINCON MOUNTAINS, ARIZONA. Southwestern Naturalist 55(2):240–253 - get paper here
  • Gentry, A.F. 1885. A review of the genus Phrynosoma. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (ser. 3) 37: 138-148 - get paper here
  • Girard, Charles F. 1858. United States Exploring Expedition during the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, Under the command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Vol. 20. Herpetology. C. Sherman & Son, Philadelphia, xv, 492 pages [see note in Zhao and Adler 1993: 369] - get paper here
  • Gloyd, Howard K. 1937. A herpetological consideration of faunal areas in Southern Arizona. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 5 (5): 77-136 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Hardy, L.M., & McDiarmid, R.W. 1969. The amphibians and reptiles of Sinaloa, Mexico. Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. 18 (3): 39-252. - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Lara-Reséndiz Rafael A., Arenas-Moreno Diego M., Beltrán-Sánchez Elizabeth, Gramajo Weendii, Verdugo-Molina Javier, Sherbrooke Wade C. et al. 2015. Selected body temperature of nine species of Mexican horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Rev. Mex. Biodiv. 86 (1): 275-278. - get paper here
  • Lara-Resendiz, Rafael A., Rodrigo Garcia-Figueroa and Ramón F. Ochoa-Jara. 2016. Phrynosoma solare. Nocturnal activity. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3(4): 1010–1011 - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D. and Jimmy A. McGuire 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of horned lizards (Phrynosoma ) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data: Evidence for a misleading mitochondrial gene tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 (3): 628-644 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2020. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sinaloa, Mexico with a conservation status summary and comparisons with neighboring states. ZooKeys 931: 85-114 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Rorabaugh JC 2019. A conservation checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Sonora, Mexico, with updated species lists. ZooKeys 829: 131-160 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Meyers, J.J.; Herrel, A. & Nishikawa, K. 2006. Morphological correlates of ant eating in horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89: 13–24 - get paper here
  • Nevárez-de los Reyes; Manuel, David Lazcano, Javier Banda-Leal and Ian Recchio 2014. Notes on Mexican Herpetofauna 22: Herpetofauna of the Continental Portion of the Municipality of Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Bull. Chicago Herp. Soc. 49(8):105-115 - get paper here
  • Painter, Charles W. 1993. Phrynosoma solare (regal horned lizard). USA: New Mexico. Herpetological Review 24 (4): 155 - get paper here
  • Parker, W.S. 1974. Phrynosoma solare (Gray): Regal horned lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 162: 1-2 - get paper here
  • Parker, William S. 1971. Ecological observations on the regal horned lizard (Phrynosoma solare) in Arizona. Herpetologica 27 (3): 333-338 - get paper here
  • Presch,W. 1969. Evolutionary osteology and relationships of the horned lizard genus Phrynosoma (family Iguanidae). Copeia 1969 (2): 250-275 - get paper here
  • Reeder,T.W. & Montanucci,R.R. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of the horned lizards (Phrynomomatidae: Phrynosoma): evidence from mitochondrial DNA and morphology. Copeia 2001 (2): 309-323 - get paper here
  • Schonberger, C.F. 1945. Oviposition by Phrynosoma solare Copeia 1945 (1): 53-54. - get paper here
  • Sherbrooke, Wade C. 2003. Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, 178 pp. - get paper here
  • SHERBROOKE, WADE C. 2021. PHRYNOSOMA SOLARE (Regal Horned Lizard). HIBERNATING POSTURE. Herpetological Review 52 (3): 651–652. - get paper here
  • SHERBROOKE, WADE C. 2021. PHRYNOSOMA SOLARE (Regal Horned Lizard). HIBERNATING BLOOD-SQUIRTING DEFENSE. Herpetological Review 52 (2): 411–412. - get paper here
  • Skubowius, Bernd 2012. Echsen, Schildkröten, Amphibien und Spinnentiere – die vielfältige Welt der „creeping crawlers“ in Arizona. Draco 13 (50): 70-78 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Sullivan, B.K., and E.A. Sullivan. 2016. Late fall and early winter activity by hatchling and adult Regal Horned Lizards, Phrynosoma solare. Sonoran Herpetologist 29 (1):5-6. - get paper here
  • Sullivan, Brian K., Elizabeth A. Sullivan, Keith O. Sullivan and Hunter McCall. 2014. Geographical Distribution: Phrynosoma solare (regal horned lizard). Herpetological Review 45 (4): 660-661 - get paper here
  • Taylor, Edward Harrison 1938. Notes on the herpetological fauna of the Mexican state of Sonora. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 24 (19): 475-503 [1936] - get paper here
  • Turner, D. S., Van Devender, T. R., Hale, S. F., Zach, R., Martínez, R., Van Devender, R. W., ... & Paholski, C. 2022. Amphibians and reptiles of Rancho Las Playitas area, Sonora, Mexico. Sonoran Herpetologist, 35, 50-59 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Van Devender, T.R. & C.W. Howard 1973. Notes on Natural Nests and Hatching Success in the Regal Horned Lizard (Phrynosoma solare) in Southern Arizona Herpetologica 29 (3): 238-239. - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2014. Krötenechsen – eine (sehr gute) Laune der Natur. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (107): 16-23
  • Werning, H. 2015. Jurassic World im Wohnzimmer. Mini-Dinos für das Terrarium. Reptilia (Münster) 20 (114): 26-37 - get paper here
  • Zweifel,R.G. and Norris,K.S. 1955. Contributions to the herpetology of Sonora, Mexico:Descriptions of new subspecies of snakes (Micruroides euryxanthus and Lampropeltis getulus) and miscellaneous collecting notes. American Midland Naturalist 54: 230-249 - get paper here
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

As link to this species use URL address:

without field 'search_param'. Field 'search_param' is used for browsing search result.

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator