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Phrynosoma taurus BOCOURT, 1870

IUCN Red List - Phrynosoma taurus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhrynosomatidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosomatini; Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Mexican Horned Lizard
G: Büffelhorn-Krötenechse
S: Camaleón Toro 
SynonymPhrynosoma taurus BOCOURT 1870
Phrynosoma taurus — DUGÈS 1873: 302
Phrynosoma taurus — GENTRY 1885: 146
Phrynosoma taurus — BOULENGER 1885: 249
Phrynosoma taurus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 104
Phrynosoma taurus — LINER 1994
Phrynosoma taurus — LINER 2007
Phrynosoma taurus — CANSECO-MÁRQUEZ & GUTIÉRREZ-MAYÉN 2010
Phrynosoma taurus — KÖHLER 2021 
DistributionMexico (Morelos, Puebla, Oaxaca, Guerrero)

Type locality: Matamoras Izúcar [Puebla]  
Reproductionovovivparous (Lambert & Wiens 2013). 
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 1270, MNHN-RA 1310, MNHN-RA 1310A-C, MNHN-RA 1915, MNHN-RA 1915A-B, MNHN-RA 1916 (9 specimens) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A moderate-sized species of the genus Phrynosoma (SVL to 90 mm) that is distinguished from all congeners by having the temporal shelf greatly extended posterolaterally, terminating in a large spine, bordered medially by a smaller spine. It has the following combination of characters: (1) occipital spines small, only slightly larger than adjacent scales; (2) temporal shelf greatly extended posterolaterally, terminating in a large spine, bordered medially by a smaller spine; (3) lateral abdominal fringe in one scale row; (4) ventral scales keeled; (5) small, granular, subequal or with a single marginal row of slightly enlarged scales on each side, separated from infralabials by one scale row; (6) ventral surface of body with dark spots; (7) tail about as long as head head; (8) ovoviviparous (Baur & Köhler 2021). 
CommentHistory: the year of description for this species seems to be somewhat unclear, because the name was apparently mentioned several times without description (starting in 1868) and therefore was a “nomen nudum” for some time (SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 104). The correct authorship is BOCOURT 1870 fide Flores-Villela et al. 2016: 48.

Group: Belongs to the Brevicauda clade fide LEACHE & MCGUIRE 2006. 
EtymologyFrom the latin taurus meaning bull in allusion to its appearance. 
  • Baur, B. & Köhler, G. 2021. Krötenechsen - Biologie, Pflege, Zucht. Frankfurt, Herpeton-Verlag
  • Bergmann PJ, Irschick DJ. 2012. Vertebral evolution and the diversification of squamate reptiles. Evolution 66(4):1044-58. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01491.x - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Canseco-Márquez, L., & Gutiérrrez-Mayén, M.G. 2010. Anfibios y reptiles del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán. Comisión Nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, México D.F., Mexico, 302 pp - get paper here
  • Casas-Andreu, G., F.R. Méndez-De la Cruz and X. Aguilar-Miguel. 2004. Anfibios y Reptiles; pp. 375–390, in A.J.M. García-Mendoza, J. Ordoñez and M. Briones-Salas (ed.). Biodiversidad de Oaxaca. Instituto de Biología, UNAM-Fondo Oaxaqueño para la Conservación de la Naturaleza-World Wildlife Fund, México, D. F.
  • Castro Franco, R. & M. G. Bustos-Zagal 2003. Lagartijas de Morelos, México: distribución, hábitat y conservación. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n.s.) 88:123-142 - get paper here
  • Castro-Franco, Rubén, María Guasalupe Bustos-Zagal 1994. List of reptiles of Morelos, Mexico, and their distribution in relation to vegetation types. Southwestern Naturalist 39 (2): 171-175 - get paper here
  • Dugès, ALFREDO 1873. Estudio sobre una nueva especie de camaleon. La Naturaleza 1873: 302-305 - get paper here
  • FLORES-VILLELA, OSCAR; CÉSAR A. RÍOS-MUÑOZ, GLORIA E. MAGAÑA-COTA & NÉSTOR L. QUEZADAS-TAPIA 2016. Alfredo Dugès’ type specimens of amphibians and reptiles revisited. Zootaxa 4092 (1): 033–054 - get paper here
  • Gentry, A.F. 1885. A review of the genus Phrynosoma. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. (ser. 3) 37: 138-148 - get paper here
  • Hodges, W.L. and Kelly R. Zamudio 2004. Horned lizard (Phrynosoma) phylogeny inferred from mitochondrial genes and morphological characters: understanding conflicts using multiple approaches. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 31 (3): 961-971 - get paper here
  • Lambert, Shea M. and John J. Wiens 2013. EVOLUTION OF VIVIPARITY: A PHYLOGENETIC TEST OF THE COLD-CLIMATE HYPOTHESIS IN PHRYNOSOMATID LIZARDS. Evolution 67 (9): 2614–2630 - get paper here
  • Lara-Reséndiz Rafael A., Arenas-Moreno Diego M., Beltrán-Sánchez Elizabeth, Gramajo Weendii, Verdugo-Molina Javier, Sherbrooke Wade C. et al. 2015. Selected body temperature of nine species of Mexican horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Rev. Mex. Biodiv. 86 (1): 275-278. - get paper here
  • Leaché, Adam D. and Jimmy A. McGuire 2006. Phylogenetic relationships of horned lizards (Phrynosoma ) based on nuclear and mitochondrial data: Evidence for a misleading mitochondrial gene tree. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 (3): 628-644 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2020. A conservation checklist of the herpetofauna of Morelos, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 941: 121-144 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • López-Vargas, M. R. & Lemos-Espinal, J. A. 2012. Phrynosoma taurus (bull horned lizard) prey. Herpetological Review 43: 337-338 - get paper here
  • Mata-Silva, Vicente, Jerry D. Johnson, Larry David Wilson and Elí García-Padilla. 2015. The herpetofauna of Oaxaca, Mexico: composition, physiographic distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (1): 6–62 - get paper here
  • Meyers, J.J.; Herrel, A. & Nishikawa, K. 2006. Morphological correlates of ant eating in horned lizards (Phrynosoma). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89: 13–24 - get paper here
  • Nieto-Montes de Oca, Adrián; Diego Arenas-Moreno, Elizabeth Beltrán-Sánchez, and Adam D. Leaché 2014. A New Species of Horned Lizard (Genus Phrynosoma) from Guerrero, México, with an Updated Multilocus Phylogeny. Herpetologica Jun 2014, Vol. 70, No. 2: 241-257. - get paper here
  • Palacios-Aguilar, Ricardo & OSCAR FLORES-VILLELA 2018. An updated checklist of the herpetofauna from Guerrero, Mexico. Zootaxa 4422 (1): 1-24 - get paper here
  • Presch,W. 1969. Evolutionary osteology and relationships of the horned lizard genus Phrynosoma (family Iguanidae). Copeia 1969 (2): 250-275 - get paper here
  • Reeder,T.W. & Montanucci,R.R. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of the horned lizards (Phrynomomatidae: Phrynosoma): evidence from mitochondrial DNA and morphology. Copeia 2001 (2): 309-323 - get paper here
  • Sherbrooke, Wade C. 2003. Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America. University of California Press, Berkeley, 178 pp. - get paper here
  • Smith, H.M. & Taylor,E.H. 1950. An annotated checklist and key to the reptiles of Mexico exclusive of the snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 199: 1-253 - get paper here
  • Werning, H. 2014. Krötenechsen – eine (sehr gute) Laune der Natur. Reptilia (Münster) 19 (107): 16-23
  • Woolrich-Piña, G. A., E. García-Padilla, D. L. DeSantis, J. D. Johnson, V. Mata-Silva, and L. D. Wilson 2017. The herpetofauna of Puebla, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 791–884 - get paper here
  • Zamudio, K.R., Parra-Olea, G. 2000. Reproductive mode and female reproductive cycles of two endemic Mexican horned lizards (Phrynosoma taurus and Phrynosoma braconnieri). Copeia 2000 (1): 222–229 - get paper here
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