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Phyllurus ossa COUPER, COVACEVICH & MORITZ, 1993

IUCN Red List - Phyllurus ossa - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaCarphodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos) 
SubspeciesPhyllurus ossa ossa COUPER, COVACEVICH & MORITZ 1993
Phyllurus ossa hobsoni COUPER & HOSKIN 2013
Phyllurus ossa tamoya COUPER & HOSKIN 2013 
Common Names 
SynonymPhyllurus ossa COUPER, COVACEVICH & MORITZ 1993
Phyllurus ossa — COGGER 2000: 742
Phyllurus ossa — PIANKA & VITT 2003: 178
Phyllurus ossa — WILSON & SWAN 2010
Phyllurus ossa — COGGER 2014: 276 
DistributionAustralia (Queensland)

ossa: Narrowly restricted to the Mirani area of the central Queensland coast (Fig. 10), with populations occurring in disjunct patches of habitat at Mt Pelion (20°57’S, 148°48’E; Stuart-Fox et al., 2001), Mt Ossa (20°58’S, 148°19’E), St Helen’s Gap (21°00’S, 148°42’E) and Mt Charlton (Mt Charlton (21°00’S, 148°43’E). Phyllurus ossa populations recently found to the north of these sites, at Mt Macartney (Cathu SF) and Mt Hector, appear to conform to P. ossa ossa but these need to be assessed in more detail. Type locality: Mt Ossa/Ossa Ck, via Mirani (20°56', 148°49') MEQ.

hobsoni: Proserpine area of the mid eastern Queensland coast (Fig. 10), with disjunct populations on Mt Dryander (20°15’S, 148°33’E) and in the Conway Range (20°21’S, 148°48’E). Type locality: near Little Conway Mtn, Conway SF (20°27 ́S, 148°44 ́E)

tamoya: Whitsunday Island (20° 15 ́S, 148° 57 ́E) in the Cumberland Group on the mid-eastern Queensland coast; Type locality: Sawmill Bay, Whitsunday Island (20° 15 ́30 ̋S, 148° 57 ́12 ̋E). Map legend:
Type locality - Type locality.
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: QM J53444, Queensland Museum, female.
Holotype [tamoya]: QMJ89139, 20 October, 2010. Paratypes. QMJ89129–89131, QMJ89154. Details as for holotype, except QMJ89154 was collected 21 October, 2010.
Holotype (hobsoni). QMJ56773, P. Couper & B. Heinrich, 24 October 1992. Paratypes. QMJ56775, QMJ56791–92, Vine Ck, Mt Dryander (20°15 ́S, 148°33 ́E); QMJ57898 Mt Dryander (20°15 ́S, 148°36 ́E); QMJ90611–12 Deep Ck, Mt Dryander State Forest (20°16 ́30 ̋S, 148°33 ́45 ̋E); QMJ56766–71, Brandy Ck, Conway Ra. (20°21 ́S, 148°41 ́E); QMJ78761, Conway SF (20°21 ́04 ̋S, 148°43 ́38 ̋E); QMJ90609, Mt Wilson, Conway NP (20°26 ́50 ̋S, 148°43 ́14 ̋E); QMJ90610, Mt Wilson, Conway NP (20°26 ́48 ̋S, 148°43 ́16 ̋E); QMJ56772, QMJ56774, near Little Conway Mtn, Conway SF (20°27 ́S,148°44 ́E); QMJ83727, Conway, SF (20°23 ́44 ̋S, 148°43 ́53 ̋E). 
CommentDIAGNOSIS P. ossa is a moderately-spinose, medium-sized Phyllurus (maximum SVL 89mm). P. ossa may be distinguished from P. caudiannulatus by its rostral shield (rostral partially divided, Fig. 7f-h vs rostral totally divided, Fig. 7a); from P. isis, P. nepthys, and P. platurus by its rostral grooves (usually 3 grooves, sometimes 2, rarely 1, partially dividing the rostral, Fig. 7f-h vs a single groove partially dividing the rostral, Fig. 7e,ij). It can ~e distinguished further from P. nepthys by Its venter (immaculate vs heavily 'peppered' brown); from P. platurus by its original tail (with distinct white bands vs lacking white bands); and from P. isis by the size of its flank tubercules (moderate vs small). [from COUPER et al. 1993].

Diagnosis (ossa s.str.). A medium-sized Phyllurus (SVL to 89 mm) with a flared original tail. Phyllurus ossa ossa can be distinguished from its congeners by the following suite of characters: rostral partially divided by two or three deep grooves; axilla deeply invaginated; throat without scattered tubercles (Fig. 4B); subinfralabial scales homogeneous, merging gradually with smaller throat granules (Fig. 5B); pectoral region lacking small granules that extend medially from limb insertion (Fig. 6B); lower forelimb with large sharply pointed dorsal tubercles extending to wrist (7B); dorsal surface of foot with enlarged, spinose tubercles; first phalanx of each toe generally bearing a series of sharply pointed tubercles along dorsal surface (Fig. 8B); original tail with tall, spinose tubercles on outer edges of flared portion (Fig. 9C).

Diagnosis (hobsoni). A medium-sized Phyllurus (SVL to 84 mm) with a flared original tail. Phyllurus ossa hobsoni subsp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners by the following suite of characters: rostral partially divided by two or three deep grooves; axilla deeply invaginated; throat without scattered tubercles (see Fig. 4B); subinfralabial scales homogeneous, merging gradually with smaller throat granules (see Fig. 5B); pectoral region with a scattering of small granules extending medially from limb insertion (see Fig. 6A, except in Mt Dryander population); enlarged dorsal tubercles of reduced spinosity on distal portion of forelimb (Fig. 7A); dorsal surface of foot with only a few, small bluntly-tipped tubercles; first phalanx of toe lacking spinose tubercles on dorsal surface (see 8A); original tail with tall, spinose tubercles on outer edges of flared portion (Fig. 9B).

Diagnosis (tamoya). A medium-sized Phyllurus (SVL to 89 mm) with a flared original tail. Phyllurus ossa tamoya subsp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners by the following suite of characters: rostral partially divided by two or three deep grooves; axilla deeply invaginated; throat tuberculate with larger tubercles interspersed amongst smaller throat scales (Fig. 4A); subinfralabial scales distinctly heterogeneous, not merging gradually with smaller throat granules (Fig. 5A); pectoral region of venter with scattered small granules extending medially from limb insertion (Fig. 6A); enlarged dorsal tubercles of reduced spinosity on distal portion of forelimb (see Fig. 7A); dorsal surface of toes without enlarged conical tubercles (Fig. 8A); original tail lacking tall, spinose tubercles on outer edges of flared portion (Fig. 9A); dorsal pattern consists of indistinct ocelli (Fig. 3).

Similar species: Phyllurus ossa ossa can only be confused with congeners that have broadly-flared original tails (hence P. caudiannulatus, P. gulbaru and P. kabikabi are are excluded from further consideration). Of the broad tailed species, P. ossa ossa, P. ossa tamoya subsp. nov. and P. ossa hobsoni subsp. nov. are the only three that possess more than one central groove on the rostral shield (usually 2–3 grooves present). Phyllurus ossa ossa is separated from P. ossa tamoya subsp. nov. by its throat scalation (non-tuberculate, throat granules uniformly small vs throat scales interspersed with larger tubercles; Fig. 4), the state of its subinfralabial scales (homogeneous vs heterogeneous; Fig. 5), the arrangement of tubercles on the ventral surface of the upper forelimb (moderate to sparse vs densely packed), and its original tail which has spinose tubercles along the outer edges of the flared portion (vs tail largely devoid of spinose tubercles on edges; Fig. 9). It is separated from P. ossa hobsoni subsp. nov. in lacking small granules in the pectoral region that extend medially from limb insertion (vs a scattering of small granules in the pectoral region that extend medially from limb insertion; Fig. 6), by having large sharply pointed tubercles on the dorsal surface of the lower forearm that extend to the wrist (vs dorsal tubercles decrease in size and spinosity on lower forelimb above wrist; Fig. 7), and spinosity of the first phalanx of the toe (first phalanx of toe generally bearing a series of sharply pointed tubercles along dorsal surface vs first phalanx of toe lacking spinose tubercles on dorsal surface; Fig. 8).
Phyllurus ossa tamoya subsp. nov. only be confused with congeners that have broadly-flared original tails (hence P. caudiannulatus, P. gulbaru and P. kabikabi are excluded from further consideration). Of the broad-tailed species, only P. ossa tamoya subsp. nov., P. ossa hobsoni subsp. nov. and P. ossa ossa possess more than one central groove on the rostral shield (usually two or three grooves present). Phyllurus ossa tamoya subsp. nov. is separated from P.ossa hobsoni subsp. nov. and P. ossa ossa by its tuberculate throat scalation (vs non- tuberculate, Fig. 4), its heterogeneous subinfralabial scales (vs homogeneous, Fig. 5), the arrangement of tubercles on the ventral surface of the distal portion of the forelimb (densely packed vs moderate to sparse; Fig. 7), and its original tail which is largely devoid of spinose tubercles along the outer edges of the flared portion (vs tubercles present on tail edges; Fig. 9).
Phyllurus ossa hobsoni subsp. nov. can only be confused with its congeners that have broadly- flared original tails (hence P. caudiannulatus, P. gulbaru and P. kabikabi are excluded from further consideration). Of the broad-tailed species, P. ossa hobsoni subsp. nov., P. ossa tamoya subsp. nov. and P. ossa ossa are the only three that possess more than one central groove on the rostral shield (usually two or three grooves present). Phyllurus ossa hobsoni subsp. nov. is separated from P. ossa tamoya subsp. nov. by its throat scalation (non- tuberculate, throat granules uniformly small vs throat scales interspersed with larger tubercles; Fig. 4), the state of its subinfralabial scales (homogeneous vs heterogenous; Fig. 5), the arrangement of tubercles on the ventral surface of the upper forelimb (moderate to sparse vs densely packed) and its original tail which has spinose tubercles along the outer edges of the flared portion (vs tail largely devoid of spinose tubercles on edges; Fig. 9). It is separated from P. ossa ossa in having a scattering of small granules in the pectoral region that extend medially from limb insertion vs pectoral region lacking small granules that extend medially from limb insertion (Fig. 6), by having reduced size and spinosity of dorsal tubercles on lower forelimb above wrist vs lower forelimb with large sharply pointed tubercles extending to wrist (Fig. 7), and by the spinosity of the first phalanx of the toe (lacking spinose tubercles on dorsal surface vs first phalanx of toe generally bearing a series of sharply pointed tubercles along dorsal surface (Fig. 8). 
EtymologyEtymology (tamoya). The subspecific name recognises the contribution of Marine Parks staff in facilitating the field surveys undertaken on Whitsunday Island. Tamoya is the name of the Marine Parks vessel based at Airlie Beach that services the islands of the Cumberland Group.

ETYMOLOGY: Named for Mt Ossa, the type locality. The epithet is to be treated as a noun in apposition.

Etymology (hobsoni). Named for Rod Hobson of the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service for his many and varied contributions to the documentation and conservation of Queensland’s reptiles. Rod first notified us of the occurrence of a leaf-tailed gecko on Whitsunday Island and assisted with the collection of the type series. 
References
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp.
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Couper, P. J.; CONRAD J. HOSKIN 2013. Two new subspecies of the leaf-tailed gecko Phyllurus ossa (Lacertilia: Carphodactylidae) from mid-eastern Queensland, Australia. Zootaxa 3664: 537–553 - get paper here
  • Couper, P.J.; Covacevich, J.A. & Mortiz, C. 1993. A review of the leaf-tailed geckos endemic to eastern Australia: a new genus, four new species, and other new data. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 34 (1): 95-124
  • Hoskin, C.J.; P. J. Couper & C. J. Schneider 2003. A New Species of Phyllurus (Lacertailia: Gekkonidae) and a Revised Phylogeny and Key for the Australian Leaf-tailed Geckos. Australian Journal of Zoology 51 (2): 153-164 - get paper here
  • Pianka, E.R. & Vitt, L.J. 2003. Lizards - Windows to the Evolution of Diversity. University of California Press, Berkeley, 347 pp. [review in Copeia 2004: 955] - get paper here
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
 
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