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Pinoyscincus mindanensis (TAYLOR, 1915)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Mindanao Sphenomorphus 
SynonymSphenomorphus mindanensis TAYLOR 1915: 99
Sphenomorphus mindanensis — TAYLOR 1922
Sphenomorphus mindanensis — BROWN & ALCALA 1980: 174
Sphenomorphus mindanensis — BROWN 1995
Sphenomorphus mindanensis — LINKEM et al. 2010
Pinoyscincus mindanensis — LINKEM, DIESMOS & BROWN 2011 
DistributionPhilippines (Mindanao, Leyte, Bohol)

Type locality: Argusan, Mindanao  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: lost, originally BSMP 1690, Bunauan, Agusan Province, Mindanao, collected E.H. Taylor, ix.1912; lost fide BROWN & ALCALA 1980. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: “Frontoparietal divided ; interparietal present ; lower eyelid scaly; 32 scales around the body; ear opening much smaller than eye opening; adpressed limbs barely touching.” (Taylor 1915: 99)

Description of type. “Rostral twice as broad as high; the width equal to that of the first labial; frontonasal forming a suture with the rostral and frontal; prefrontals large, separated; frontal nearly as broad as the supraocular region frontoparietal distinct, elongate; parietals forming a suture behind a moderate interparietal; 5 supraoculars, the last much the smallest; 2 small scales inserted between the parietal and the last ocular; 8 or 9 superciliaries; nasal large, with nostril piercing it, followed by 2 or 3 loreals, the first highest; 7 upper labials, sixth much the largest; fifth low but long; a series of small suboculars, one entering some distance between the fourth and fifth supralabials; a large temporal bordering the parietal is bordered by 5 other enlarged scales ; 2 enlarged preanals; 32 scale rows about the body; about 66 dorsal scales from occiput to above the vent in a longitudinal row; diameter of eye much less than distance from eye to end of snout; auricular opening distinct; tympanum more or less deeply sunk; tail very slightly compressed.” (Taylor 1915: 99)

Color in life. “Above light brown with a more or less regular series of indistinct, roundish, light yellowish brown spots; lateral ground color dark brown with a few small, irregular, yellowish white spots; tail similar in color to the back with larger light spots on the sides; entire ventral surface of the body immaculate creamy white.” (Taylor 1915: 100)

Measurements. “Total length, 115 millimeters; snout to vent, 48; foreleg, 10; hind leg, 15.5; width of head, 7; greatest width of body, 8.” (Taylor 1915: 100)

Comparisons. “This species seems closely allied to Sphenomorphus jagori, but differs from it in being very much smaller, in the proportional lengths of the legs being different, and in having fewer scale rows. A female containing eggs is slightly smaller than the type, but otherwise the 2 specimens are similar. This species is very rare. Only these 2 specimens were seen during a year and a half at Bunauan.” (Taylor 1915: 100) 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Beukema, W. 2011. Herpetofauna of disturbed forest fragments on the lower Mt. Kitanglad Rnage, Mindanao Isand, Philippines. Salamandra 47 (2): 90-98 - get paper here
  • Brown, R.M. et al. 2010. Species boundaries in Philippine montane forest skinks (Genus Sphenomorphus): three new species from the mountains of Luzon and clarification of the status of the poorly known S. beyeri, S. knollmanae, and S. laterimaculatus. Scient. Pap. Nat. Hist. Mus. Univ. Kansas (42): 1-27
  • Brown, Walter C.; Alcala, Angel C. 1970. The zoogeography of the herpetofauna of the Philippine Islands, a fringing archipelago. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 38 (6): 105-130 - get paper here
  • Brown, WC. & A.C. ALCALA 1980. Philippine Lizards of the family Scincidae. Silliman Univ. Nat. Sci., Dumaguete City, Mon., Ser. 2: i-xi + 1-246.
  • Linkem, C.W.; Diesmos, A.C.; Brown, R.M. 2010. A NEW SPECIES OF SCINCID LIZARD (GENUS SPHENOMORPHUS) FROM PALAWAN ISLAND, PHILIPPINES. Herpetologica 66 (1): 67–79 - get paper here
  • Linkem, Charles W.; Arvin C. Diesmos, Rafe M. Brown 2011. Molecular systematics of the Philippine forest skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Sphenomorphus): testing morphological hypotheses of interspecific relationships. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 163: 1217–1243 - get paper here
  • Sanguila MB, Cobb KA, Siler CD, Diesmos AC, Alcala AC, Brown RM 2016. The amphibians and reptiles of Mindanao Island, southern Philippines, II: the herpetofauna of northeast Mindanao and adjacent islands. ZooKeys 624: 1–132, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.624.9814 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1915. New species of Philippine lizards. Philippine Journal of Science. 10: 89-109 - get paper here
  • Taylor, E.H. 1922. The lizards of the Philippine Islands. Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bureau of Science, Government of the Philippine Islands, Manila, Publication no. 17: 269 pp. - get paper here
  • Toledo-Bruno, Angela Grace; Daryl G. Macas, Dave P. Buenavista, Michael Arieh P. Medina, Ronald Regan C. Forten 2017. Amphibian and reptile diversity in Mt. Kalatungan Range Natural Park, Philippines. Environmental and Experimental Biology 15: 127–135, DOI: 10.22364/eeb.15.11 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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