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Pituophis melanoleucus (DAUDIN, 1803)

IUCN Red List - Pituophis melanoleucus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
SubspeciesPituophis melanoleucus lodingi BLANCHARD 1924
Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus (DAUDIN 1803)
Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus BARBOUR 1921 
Common NamesE: Eastern Pine Snake
lodingi: Black Pine Snake
melanoleucus: Northern Pine Snake
mugitus: Florida Pine Snake; G: Florida-Kiefernnatter
G: Bullennatter 
SynonymColuber melanoleucus DAUDIN 1803: 188
Pituophis melanoleucus — HOLBROOK 1842: 7
Churchilla bellona BAIRD & GIRARD 1852: 70
Pituophis bellona — BAIRD & GIRARD 1852: 351
Pituophis melanoleucus — BAIRD & GIRARD 1853: 65
Rhinechis melanoleucus — DUMÉRIL 1853: 453
Pituophis melanoleucus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 233
Pityophis melanoleucus — GARMAN 1884: 51
Pityophis catenifer var. bellona — GARMAN 1884: 53
Pityophis melanoleucus — SCLATER 1891: 30
Coluber melanoleucus — BOULENGER 1894: 68
Pituophis melanoleucus — SMITH & SMITH 1976
Pituophis melanoleucus — STEBBINS 1985: 189
Pituophis melanoleucus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 202
Pituophis melanoleuca — BLUME 1999
Pituophis melanoleucus — BURBRINK 2007
Pituophis melanoleucus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 559

Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi BLANCHARD 1924
Pituophis lödingi BLANCHARD 1924
Pituophis melanoleucus loedingi — KLUGE 1984
Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi — CROTHER 2000
Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 364
Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi — BAXLEY et al. 2011
Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi — SCHÄBERLE 2012

Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus (DAUDIN 1803)
Coluber melanoleucus DAUDIN 1803: 188
Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 360
Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus — CROTHER 2000

Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus BARBOUR 1921
Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus — CROTHER 2000
Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 363
Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus — HIRSCHKORN & SKUBOWIUS 2011 
DistributionSW Canada,
USA (Washington, Oregon, Montana, Wyoming, California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, SW North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Texas, Minnesota, Iowa, Arkansas, Louisiana, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, New Jersey)

melanoleucus: USA (S North Carolina west through South Carolina to northern Georgia, E Tennessee, SE Kentucky, south into Alabama. Disjunct populations in S New Jersey, WC Virginia, adjacent West Virginia, C Kentucky, SW Tennessee). Intergrades with mugitus in South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama. Type locality: "la Caroline méridionale et de la Floríde." Restricted to Carolina by Barbour, 1921b: 117. Further restricted to Charleston, South Carolina, USA by Schmidt, 1953a: 201.

mugitus: S South Carolina to Georgia and S Florida; Type locality: Palm Beach, Florida, 26.705639° -80.036419° (WGS84), Error: 8000 m.

lodingi: SW Alabama to E Louisiana, Florida. Type locality: Alabama, Mobile, between Irvington and Grand Bay.

sayi: W Indiana and Wisconsin to S Alberta, south to Texas and NE Mexico; isolated records from NE Texas. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: none designated, present location unknown.
Holotype: UMMZ [lodingi]
Holotype: MCZ R-15525 [mugitus] 
CommentSubspecies: Pituophis melanoleucus annectens, P. m. sayi, and other subspecies have been transferred to P. catenifer. Not listed in LINER 1994.

Distribution: map for subspecies in Rodríguez-Robles & De Jesús-Escobar (2000). These authors also found that two segments of the melanoleucus complex, the lodingi–melanoleucus–mugitus eastern pinesnake clade and the affinis–annectens–bimaris–catenifer–deserticola–sayi–ruthveni–vertebralis clade from central and western United States and northern Mexico, represent divergent, allopatric lineages with no known intergradation zone. Rodríguez-Robles & De Jesús-Escobar recognize each of these two groupings as a different species (see P. catenifer). Not in Mexico (Heimes 2016)

Type species: Coluber melanoleucus DAUDIN 1803: 188 is the type species of the genus Pituophis HOLBROOK 1842. 
EtymologyThe generic name was derived from the Greek words pitys, meaning "pine" and ophis, meaning "snake." 
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  • Barbour, Thomas 1940. Pine snakes, black and brown. Copeia 1940 (3): 205 - get paper here
  • Barbour,R. 1921. The Florida Pine snake. Proc. New England Zool. Club 7: 117-118 - get paper here
  • Baxley, Danna; Gregory J Lipps, and Carl P Qualls 2011. Multiscale Habitat Selection by Black Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi) in Southern Mississippi. Herpetologica 67 (2): 154-166. - get paper here
  • Bechtel, Elizabeth R.;Whitecar, Terrence 1983. Genetics of striping in the gopher snake, Pituophis melanoleucus. Journal of Herpetology 17 (4): 362-370 - get paper here
  • Blackburn, D.G. 1994. Standardized criteria for the recognition of embryonic nutritional patterns in squamate reptiles. Copeia 1994 (4): 925-935 - get paper here
  • Blanchard, F.N. 1924. A name for the Black Pituophis from Alabama. Papers Michigan Acad.Sci, Arts Letters 4: 531-532
  • Blume, F. 1999. Interessantes Drohverhalten einer Kiefernnatter, Pituophis melanoleuca (Daudin, 1803) im Sandhill Game Land Nationalpark, North Carolina (U. S. A.). Sauria 21 (1): 45-46 - get paper here
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  • Burger, Joanna and Robert T. Zappalorti 2011. THE NORTHERN PINE SNAKE (PITUOPHIS MELANOLEUCUS): ITS LIFE HISTORY, BEHAVIOR AND CONSERVATION. Nova Science Publishers, NY, 92 pp.
  • Burger, Joanna and Robert Zappalorti 2015. Hibernation Site Philopatry in Northern Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus) in New Jersey. Journal of Herpetology Jun 2015, Vol. 49, No. 2: 245-251. - get paper here
  • Burger, Joanna, Robert T. Zappalorti and Michael Gochfeld. 2000. Defensive behaviors of Pine Snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus ) and Black Racers (Coluber constrictor) to disturbance during hibernation. Herpetological Natural History 7(1):59-66
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  • Knight, James L. 1986. Variation in snout morphology in the North American snake Pituophis melanoleucus (Serpentes: Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 20 (1): 77-79 - get paper here
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  • Maxwell, John, Jr. and A. Floyd Scott. 2014. Geographic Distribution: Pituophis melanoleucus melanoleucus (northern pinesnake). Herpetological Review 45 (3): 466
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