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Platysternon megacephalum GRAY, 1831

IUCN Red List - Platysternon megacephalum - Endangered, EN

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Higher TaxaPlatysternidae, Testudines (turtles) 
SubspeciesPlatysternon megacephalum megacephalum GRAY 1831
Platysternon megacephalum peguense GRAY 1870
Platysternon megacephalum shiui ERNST and MCCORD 1987 
Common NamesE: Big-headed Turtle
G: Grosskopfschildkröte
peguense: Burmese Big-headed Turtle
shiui: Vietnamese Big-headed Turtle 
SynonymPlatysternon megacephalum GRAY 1831
Platysternon megacephalus — HARDWICKE & GRAY 1835
Platysternon Megacephalum — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1835: 344
Platysternum megacephalum — BOULENGER 1889
Platysternon platycephalum — MERTENS 1959 (ex errore)
Platysternum megalocephalum — STANEK 1959 (ex errore)
Platysternon macrocephalus — AGASSIZ 1960 (fide PIDOPLICKO & TARASCUK)
Platysternon megacephalum — COX et al. 1998: 124
Platysternon megacephalum — ZIEGLER 2002: 154

Platysternon megacephalum megacephalum WERMUTH 1960
Platysternon megacephalum megacephalum WERMUTH 1960
Platysternon megacephalum tristernalis SCHLEICH & GRUBER 1984
Platysternon megacephalum megacephalum — RHODIN et al. 2010

Platysternon megacephalum peguense GRAY 1870
Platysternon peguense GRAY 1870
Platysternon megacephalum peguense — WERMUTH 1960
Platysternon megacephalum vogeli WERMUTH 1969 (fide ERNST & BARBOUR)
Platysternon megacephalum peguense — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 228
Platysternon megacephalum peguense — RHODIN et al. 2010

Platysternon megacephalum shiui ERNST and MCCORD 1987
Platysternon megacephalum shiui — RHODIN et al. 2010 
DistributionS China (Guangdong, Jiangxi, Fukien, Kwangtung, Kwangsi, Hainan Island), N Vietnam, Laos , Cambodia, N Thailand, S Burma

megacephalum: China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Yun-nan, Zhejiang); Type locality: "in China"

peguense: Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Vietnam

shiui: N Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos; Type locality: Langson.

not recognized any more:

tristernalis: S yunnan (China); Type locality: between Mung Lun and Simao, eastern bank of the Mekong river.

vogeli: NW thailand; Type locality: Chiang Mai. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.9.7.42 
CommentZHAO & ADLER (1993) synonymize P. m. tristernalis with P. megacephalum.

This species has been previously placed in the family Chelydridae (GAFFNEY 1975, SHAFFER et al. 1997). 
References
  • Barley, Anthony J.; Phillip Q. Spinks, Robert C. Thomson, H. Bradley Shaffer 2010. Fourteen nuclear genes provide phylogenetic resolution for difficult nodes in the turtle tree of life. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55 (3): 1189-1194 - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Buskirk, James R. 1989. New locality records for Chinese non-marine chelonians [Chinemys reevesii nigricans, Cistoclemmys flavomarginata, Cuora galbinifrons hainanensis pani, Mauremys mutica, Clemmys Oscadia sinensis, Sacalia bealei quadriocellata, Platysternon megacephalum Chinese Herpetological Research 2 (2): 65-68
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Duméril, A.M.C., and G. Bibron. 1835. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles, Vol. 2. Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret, Paris, iv + 680 p. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Fong, J.J. & Qiao, G.X. 2010. New localities of endangered Chinese turtles from museum specimens and the practical and ethical challenges using and reporting natural history collection data. Zootaxa 2393: 59–68 - get paper here
  • Gad, J. 2007. Keeping and breeding the big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum megacephalum,with remarks on subspecies validity. Emys 14(1):4-18
  • Gray, J.E. 1831. Characters of a new genus of freshwater tortoise from China. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1831: 106-107
  • Gray. J. E. 1835. Illustrations of Indian Zoology, chiefly selected from the collection of Major - General Hardwicke. [Coluber bengalensis] Vol. 2. London (1833-1834): 263 pp., 95 plates - get paper here
  • Jamniczky, H. A. and A. P. Russell 2007. Reappraisal of Patterns of Nonmarine Cryptodiran Turtle Carotid Circulation: Evidence From Osteological Correlates and Soft Tissues. JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY 268:571–587
  • Joyce, Walter G.; James F. Parham , Tyler R. Lyson , Rachel C. M. Warnock and Philip C. J. Donoghue 2013. A Divergence Dating Analysis of Turtles Using Fossil Calibrations: An Example of Best Practices. Journal of Paleontology, 87(4):612-634 - get paper here
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  • Kowalski, T., W. Grossmann, H.-J. ZILGER & B.-M. ZWANZIG 2011. Herpetologische Beobachtungen im Sultanat Oman: Das Saiq - Plateau im Jebel al - Akhdar Sauria 33 (1): 29-50 - get paper here
  • Lambertz, Markus; Wolfgang Böhme, Steven F. Perry 2011. The anatomy of the respiratory system in Platysternon megacephalum Gray, 1831 (Testudines: Cryptodira) and related species, and its phylogenetic implications. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A 156: 330–336
  • Lee, J. C.I.; Tsai, L.C.; Liao, S.P.; Linacre, A. & Hsieh, H.M. 2009. Species identification using the cytochrome b gene of commercial turtle shells. Forensic Science International: Genetics 3: 67–73
  • Lourenço, João M.; Julien Claude, Nicolas Galtier, Ylenia Chiari 2011. Dating cryptodiran nodes: Origin and diversification of the turtle superfamily Testudinoidea. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62 (1): - get paper here
  • Mell,R. 1938. Beiträge zur Fauna Sinica. VI. Aus der Biologie chinesischer Schildkröten. Archiv für Naturgeschichte, N.F., 7 (3): 390-475.
  • Parham, James F; Chris R Feldman and Jeffrey L Boore 2006. The complete mitochondrial genome of the enigmatic bigheaded turtle (Platysternon): description of unusual genomic features and the reconciliation of phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6: 1-11
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Schleich, H.H., and U. Gruber. 1984. Eine neue Grosskopfschildkröte, Platysternon megacephalum tristernalis nov. ssp., aus Yünnan, China. Spixiana 7 (1): 67-73 - get paper here
  • Shiping, Gong; Haitao Shi, Jonathan J. Fong and Michael Lau. 2009. Recent records of freshwater turtles from Guangdong, China. Turtle and Tortoise Newsletter 13:24-27
  • Switak, Karl H. 2006. Adventures in Green Python Country. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 364 pp. - get paper here
  • Wermuth, H. 1969. Eine neue Grosskopfschildkrote, Platysternon megacephalum vogeli, n. ssp. D. Aquar.-Terr. Zeitsch. (DATZ) 22 (12): 372-374
  • Xiangkui-Y 1994. Fossil and recent turtles of China. Science Press, Beijing. 1994: i-vi, 1-112
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