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Plestiodon kuchinoshimensis KURITA & HIKIDA, 2014

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesJapanese: Kuchinoshima-Tokage 
SynonymPlestiodon kuchinoshimensis KURITA & HIKIDA 2014
Eumeces latiscutatus — MORITA 1989: 18
Eumeces latiscutatus — MORITA, 1991: 169
Eumeces latiscutatus — HIKIDA et al., 1992: 36 (part)
Eumeces latiscutatus — KATO et al., 1994: 491 (part)
Eumeces latiscutatus — OTA 2000: 64 (part)
Eumeces latiscutatus — MOTOKAWA & HIKIDA 2003: 97 (part)
Eumeces marginatus — OTA et al., 1994: 169
Eumeces marginatus — HIKIDA, 1996: 80 (part)
Eumeces marginatus — OTA 2003: 103.
Plestiodon marginatus — MAENOSONO & TODA 2007: 33
Plestiodon marginatus — KURITA & HIKIDA 2014 (part).
Plestiodon marginatus marginatus — OTANI 2009: 202 (part) 
DistributionJapan (Kuchinoshima Island)

Type locality: Kuchinoshima Island, Toshima Village, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan (29°59′12.0′′N, 129°55′14.4′′E, elevation 67 m)  
Reproductionoviparous (phylogenetic imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: KUZ R66803, a subadult male collected on 23 July 2010 by Kazuki Kurita. Paratypes: Twenty-nine specimens, all from Kuchinoshima Island: KUZ R8366–8373, three adult and two yearling males, and three yearling females collected on 25 April 1987 by T. Hikida; KUZ R28916–17, 28563–64, 28570, two adult males, and one adult and two subadult females collected on August 1991 by M. Toyama, S. Iwanaga, and N. Takeda; KUZ R 66800–02, 66804–07, two adult and two subadult males, and one adult and two subadult females collected on 23 July 2010 by K. Kurita; KUZ R68669–72 and 68674, two hatching males, and one adult and two hatchling females collected on 23 August 2011 by K. Kurita; KUZ R68673, 68675–77, one adult, one subadult, and one hatchling males, and one subadult female collected on 24 August 2011 by K. Kurita. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Plestiodon kuchinoshimensis is assigned to the P. latiscutatus species group (sensu Hikida, 1993) based on the presence of a fan-shaped upper secondary temporal scale with emarginated posterior margin and keeled postanal scales. This species differs from P. latiscutatus Hallowell, 1861, P. finitimus Okamoto and Hikida, 2012, and P. japonicus by the absence of PN (vs. PN usually present in P. latiscutatus, P. finitimus, and P. japonicus), from P. barbouri by having a larger number of MSR (range = 27–32, mean ± SD = 29.9 ± 0.8, n = 30 in P. kuchinoshimensis vs. 22–24 in P. barbouri), and from P. elegans by the absence of EISPF (vs. EISPF present in P. elegans). This species differs from P. stimpsonii by having five longitudinal light lines on the dorsal surface of hatchling (vs. seven lines on that of juvenile stage in P. stimpsonii, except for the Haterumajima Island population [five lines on most individu- als from Haterumajima Island]), LL passing thorough ear and the sixth to the eighth scale rows (vs. above ear and fifth scale row in P. stimpsonii), and by having a larger num- ber of MSR (vs. 24–28 in P. stimpsonii). This species mor- phologically most closely resembles P. oshimensis and P. marginatus, but it can be distinguished from both of the lat- ter species, and also from P. elegans and P. stimpsonii, by DLL beginning from behind SuO (vs. on the first SuO in P. oshimensis, and on the first SuC in P. marginatus, P. elegans, and P. stimpsonii: Fig. 4), and by having brownish background on the dorsal surface of the juvenile (vs. black- ish background on that of these four species: Fig. 4). 
CommentSynonymy after KURITA & HIKIDA 2014: 467.

Similar species: Plestiodon marginatus, P. latiscutatus.

Abundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe specific name is an adjective, derived from Kuchinoshima Island, where this species occurs endemically. 
  • Hikida T 1996. Scincidae. In “The Encyclopedia of Animals in Japan volume 5: Amphibians, Reptiles, Chondrichthyes” Ed by S Sengoku, T Hikida, M Matsui, K Nakaya, Heibonsha. [in Japanese] Tokyo, pp 80–82
  • Kato, J.; Ota, H.; Hikida, T. 1994. Biochemical systematics of the latiscutatus species group of the genus Eumeces (Scincidae, Reptilia) from east Asian Islands. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 22 (5): 491-500 - get paper here
  • Kurita, Kazuki and Tsutomu Hikida 2014. A New Species of Plestiodon (Squamata: Scincidae) from Kuchinoshima Island in the Tokara Group of the Northern Ryukyus, Japan. . Zoological Science 31 (7): 464-474, doi: 10.2108/zs130267 - get paper here
  • Maenosono T, Toda M 2007. Distributions of amphibians and terrestrial reptiles in the Ryukyu Archipelago: a review of published records. [in Japanese] Akamata 18: 28–46
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Morita T 1989. The terrestrial vertebrate fauna of Kuchinoshima Island, Tokara Group, with wild cattle inhabiting. [in Japanese] Rikabukaishi 30: 14–19
  • Morita T 1991. Animals of the Tokara Islands (mammals, reptiles, and amphibians). [in Japanese] In “Survey Reports of the Tokara Group”, Ed by Health and Environment Department, Kagoshima Prefec- tural Office, Health and Environment Department, Kagoshima Prefectural Office, Kagoshima, pp 167–178
  • Motokawa, Junko and Tsutomu Hikida 2003. Genetic variation and differentiation in the Japanese Five-line skink, Eumeces latiscutatus (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoological Science 20 (1): 97-106 - get paper here
  • Okamoto, Taku 2016. Historical Biogeography of the Terrestrial Reptiles of Japan: A Comparative Analysis of Geographic Ranges and Molecular Phylogenies. Species Diversity of Animals in Japan, pp 135-163; DOI<br />10.1007/978-4-431-56432-4_5 - get paper here
  • Otani T 2009. Japanese Reptiles and Amphibians 157. [in Japanese] Bun-ichi Sogo Shuppan, Tokyo
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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