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Plestiodon tetragrammus BAIRD, 1859

IUCN Red List - Plestiodon tetragrammus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesPlestiodon tetragrammus brevilineatus (COPE 1880)
Plestiodon tetragrammus tetragrammus BAIRD 1859 
Common NamesE: Four-lined Skink
E: Short-lined Skink [brevilineatus]
E: Four-lined Skink [tetragrammus]
S: Lincer de Cuatro Lineas 
SynonymPlestiodon tetragrammus BAIRD 1859: 256
Eumeces tetragrammus — COPE 1875: 45
Eumeces tetragrammus var. funebrosus COPE 1900: 661
Eumeces tetragrammus — TAYLOR 1936: 298
Eumeces tetragrammus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 165
Eumeces tetragrammus tetragrammus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 132
Eumeces tetragrammus — LINER 1994
Plestiodon tetragrammus — SCHMITZ et al. 2004

Eumeces tetragrammus brevilineatus COPE 1880
Eumeces brevilineatus COPE 1880: 18
Eumeces brevilineatus — TAYLOR 1936: 283
Eumeces brevilineatus — AXTELL 1939
Eumeces brevilineatus — TAYLOR 1943: 274
Eumeces brevilineatus — SMITH 1946
Eumeces brevilineatus — JAMESON & FLURY 1949
Eumeces brevilineatus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 164
Eumeces brevilineatus — ANDERSON 1962
Eumeces tetragrammus brevilineatus — LINER et al. 1977
Eumeces tetragrammus brevilineatus — TANNER 1987
Eumeces tetragrammus brevilineatus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 132
Plestiodon tetragrammus brevilineatus — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009 
DistributionUSA (Texas, Arizona [HR 30: 52]),
Mexico (Chihuahua, S Zacatecas, NE Coahuila, N Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Quéretaro, Guanajuato, Hidalgo)

brevilineatus: USA (Texas), Mexico (Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon), USA (S Texas). Type locality: Helotes, Bexar County, Texas.

tetragrammus: Mexico (Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, Nuevo Leon). USA (Texas). Type locality: “Lower Rio Grande”. Later indicated as “Matamoras, Mex.” by BAIRD (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950).  
TypesHolotype: USNM 3124; Syntype: INHS (= UIMNH) 40741
Lectotype: USNM 10159, designated by Taylor 1936, one of four cotypes; G. W. Marnock collector. [brevilineatus] 
CommentDistribution: Mesa de la Estacada, 4.3 km S, 8.5 km W Mineral El Realito (21º 33’ 43’’ N, 100º 18’ 59’’W; 1360 msnm), municipality of San Luis de la Paz, Guanajuato, México [Campos-Rodríguez et al. 2009]. Not in Sonora according to Enderson et al. 2009 and Lemos-Espinal et al. 2019. Not in Durango fide Lemos-Espinal (2018). Not in Sinaloa (Lemos-Espinal & Smith 2020).

Genetics: P. multivirgatus acquired its mitochondrial genome from P. tetragrammus after their initial divergence (Moseley et al. 2015). 
EtymologyAccording to Lieb (1990) and Lemos-Espinal and Smith (2007), the specific name was derived from the Greek words tetra, meaning "four" and gramme meaning "line," in reference to the four dorsal stripes (Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013). 
  • Anderson, J.D. 1962. Eumeces brevilineatus in Chihuahua and San Luis Potosi, Mexico Herpetologica 18 (1): 56-57. - get paper here
  • Baird, S.F. 1859. Description of new genera and species of North American lizards in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 10: 253-256 [1858] - get paper here
  • Bartlett, R. D. & Bartlett, P. 1999. A Field Guide to Texas Reptiles and Amphibians. Gulf Publishing Co., Houston, Texas, 331 pp.
  • Blackburn, D.G. 1993. STANDARDIZED CRITERIA FOR THE RECOGNITION OF REPRODUCTIVE MODES IN SQUAMATE REPTILES. Herpetologica 49 (1): 118-132 - get paper here
  • BRANDLEY, MATTHEW C.; OTA, HIDETOSHI; HIKIDA, TSUTOMU; NIETO MONTES DE OCA, ADRIAN; FERIA-ORTIZ, MANUEL; GUO, XIANGUANG; WANG, YUEZHAO 2012. The phylogenetic systematics of blue-tailed skinks (Plestiodon) and the family Scincidae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 165 (1): 163-189 - get paper here
  • Campos-Rodríguez, J. I., C. Elizalde-Arellano, J. C. López-Vidal, G. F. Aguilar-Martínez, S. N. Ramos-Reyes y R. Hernández-Arciga 2009. Nuevos registros de anfibios y reptiles para Guanajuato, procedentes de la Reserva de la Biosfera “Sierra Gorda de Guanajuato” y zonas adyacentes. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (n. s.) 25 (2): 269-282 - get paper here
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
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  • Cope, E.D. 1880. On the zoological position of Texas. Bull. US Natl. Mus., No. 17: 1-51 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1900. The crocodilians, lizards and snakes of North America. Ann. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. 1898: 153-1270 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Cruz-Elizalde R, Ramírez-Bautista A, Pineda-López R, Mata-Silva V, DeSantis DL, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Rocha A, Fucsko LA, Wilson LD. 2022. The herpetofauna of Querétaro, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 16(1) [General Section]: 148–192 (e308) - get paper here
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  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. and Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 2010. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Queretaro, Mexico. Tlalnepantla UNAM, 428 pp.
  • Flores-Hernández, M. Á., and L. Fernández-Badillo. 2017. Plestiodon tetragrammus (Baird, 1858). Mexico, Hidalgo. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 958–959 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, S.R. 2015. Reproduction of the Four-lined Skink, Plestiodon tetragrammus (Squamata: Scincidae) from Texas. Sonoran Herpetologist 28 (2):18-19. - get paper here
  • Holycross, Andrew;Fedorko, Brian 1999. Geographic distribution. Eumeces tetragrammus. Herpetological Review 30 (1): 52 - get paper here
  • Jameson, David H.;Flury, Alvin G. 1949. The reptiles and amphibians of the Sierra Vieja Range of southwestern Texas. Texas Journal of Science 1 (2): 54-77 - get paper here
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  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of San Luis Potosí, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 753: 83-106 - get paper here
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  • Leyte-Manrique A, Mata-Silva V, Báez-Montes O, Fucsko LA, DeSantis DL, García-Padilla E, Rocha A, Johnson JD, Porras LW, Wilson LD. 2022. The herpetofauna of Guanajuato, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 16(2) [General Section: 133–180 (e321) - get paper here
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  • Lieb C S 1990. Eumeces tetragrammus (Baird). Four-lined skink. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 492: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Lieb, Carl S. 1985. Systematics and distribution of the skinks allied to Eumeces tetragrammus (Sauria: Scincidae). Contributions in Science, Los Angeles (357): 1-19 - get paper here
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