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Podarcis siculus (RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ, 1810)

IUCN Red List - Podarcis siculus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
SubspeciesPodarcis siculus adriaticus (WERNER 1902)
Podarcis siculus aemiliani CAPOLONGO 1984
Podarcis siculus amparoae CAPOLONGO 1979
Podarcis siculus astorgae (MERTENS 1937)
Podarcis siculus bagnolensis (MERTENS 1937)
Podarcis siculus bolei (BRELIH 1961)
Podarcis siculus calabra (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus calabresiae (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus campana (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus campestris DE BETTA 1857
Podarcis siculus caporiaccoi (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus catanensis (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus cattaroi (TADDEI 1950)
Podarcis siculus cerbolensis (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus cettii (CARA 1872)
Podarcis siculus ciclopica (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus coeruleus (EIMER 1872)
Podarcis siculus corsica (BEDRIAGA)
Podarcis siculus dupinici (RADOVANOVIC 1956)
Podarcis siculus fasciatus (RADOVANOVIC 1956)
Podarcis siculus fiumanoideus (BRELIH 1963)
Podarcis siculus flavigulus (MERTENS 1937)
Podarcis siculus gallensis (EIMER 1881)
Podarcis siculus hadzii (BRELIH 1961)
Podarcis siculus hieroglyphicus (BERTHOLD 1840)
Podarcis siculus insularus (MERTENS 1937)
Podarcis siculus klemmeri (LANZA & CAPOLONGO 1972)
Podarcis siculus kolombatovici (KARAMAN 1928)
Podarcis siculus laganjensis (RADOVANOVIC 1956)
Podarcis siculus lanzai (MERTENS 1967)
Podarcis siculus latastei (BEDRIAGA 1879)
Podarcis siculus massinei (MERTENS 1961)
Podarcis siculus medemi (MERTENS 1942)
Podarcis siculus mediofasciatus (RADOVANOVIC 1959)
Podarcis siculus muelleri (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus monaconensis (EIMER 1881)
Podarcis siculus nikolici (BRELIH 1961)
Podarcis siculus oristanensis (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus palmarolae (MERTENS 1967)
Podarcis siculus pasquinii (LANZA 1952)
Podarcis siculus patrizii (LANZA 1951)
Podarcis siculus paulae (LANZA ADRIANI & ROMITI 1971)
Podarcis siculus pelagosae (BEDRIAGA 1886)
Podarcis siculus pirosoensis (MERTENS 1937)
Podarcis siculus pohlibensis (RADOVANOVIC 1970)
Podarcis siculus polenci (BRELIH 1961)
Podarcis siculus premudanus (RADOVANOVIC 1959)
Podarcis siculus premudensis (RADOVANOVIC 1959)
Podarcis siculus pretneri (BRELIH 1961)
Podarcis siculus radovanovici (BRELIH 1961)
Podarcis siculus ragusae (WETTSTEIN 1931)
Podarcis siculus roberti (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus salfii (LANZA 1954)
Podarcis siculus samogradi (RADOVANOVIC 1956)
Podarcis siculus sanctinicolai (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus sanctistephani (MERTENS 1926)
Podarcis siculus scopelicus (TADDEI 1950)
Podarcis siculus scorteccii (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus siculus (RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ 1810)
Podarcis siculus strombolensis (TADDEI 1949)
Podarcis siculus tyrrhenicus (MERTENS 1932)
Podarcis siculus vesseljuchi (RADOVANOVIC 1959)
Podarcis siculus zeii (BRELIH 1961) 
Common NamesE: Italian Wall Lizard
G: Ruineneidechse 
SynonymLacerta sicula RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ 1810: 8
Lacerta serpa SCHREIBER
Lacerta sicula mertensi WETTSTEIN 1931
Lacerta serpa — RADOVANOVIC 1941: 154
Lacerta muralis joachini-murati TADDEI 1949: 248 (fide LANZA 1952: 70)
Lacerta sicula — RIMPP 1979
Podarcis sicula — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 117
Podarcis sicula — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Podarcis sicula — CROTHER 2000
Podarcis siculus — BÖHME & KÖHLER 2005

Podarcis siculus adriaticus (WERNER 1902)
Lacerta serpa var. adriatica WERNER 1902: 386
Lacerta sicula adriatica — TADDEI 1949: 266

Podarcis siculus aemiliani CAPOLONGO 1984
Podarcis sicula aemiliani CAPOLONGO 1984: 197

Podarcis siculus astorgae (MERTENS 1937)
Lacerta sicula astorgae MERTENS 1937: 333
Lacerta sicula astorgae — TADDEI 1950: 149
Podarcis siculus astorgae — TIEDEMANN et al. 1994

Podarcis siculus bagnolensis (MERTENS 1937)
Lacerta sicula bagnolensis MERTENS 1937: 332
Podarcis sicula bagnolensis — HENLE 1980

Podarcis siculus bolei (BRELIH 1961)
Lacerta sicula bolei BRELIH 1961: 78

Podarcis siculus calabra (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta sicula calabra TADDEI 1949: 219

Podarcis siculus calabresiae (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta sicula calabresiae TADDEI 1949

Podarcis siculus campana (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta sicula campana TADDEI 1949: 220

Podarcis siculus campestris DE BETTA 1857
Lacerta muralis var. campestris DE BETTA 1857: 152
Lacerta sicula campestris — MERTENS 1932: 242
Lacerta sicula campestris — TADDEI 1949: 238
Lacerta sicula campestris — TADDEI 1950: 148
Lacerta sicula kurtklari SOCHUREK 1956 (fide lacerta.de)
Podarcis sicula campestris — ENTZEROTH 1982
Podarcis sicula campestris — SEHNAL & SCHUSTER 1999
Podarcis sicula campestris — MAYER & PODNAR 2002
Podarcis sicula campestris — GEBHART 2011

Podarcis siculus caporiaccoi (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta sicula caporiaccoi TADDEI 1949

Podarcis siculus catanensis (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta sicula catanensis TADDEI 1949: 216

Podarcis siculus cattaroi (TADDEI 1950)
Lacerta sicula cattaroi TADDEI 1950: 154

Podarcis siculus cerbolensis (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta sicula cerbolensis TADDEI 1949

Podarcis siculus cettii (CARA 1872)
Lacerta sicula cettii TADDEI 1949: 207
Lacerta sicula oristanensis TADDEI 1949: 209 (fide LANZA 1952: 71)

Podarcis siculus ciclopica (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta sicula ciclopica TADDEI 1949: 224

Podarcis siculus coeruleus (EIMER 1872)
Lacerta muralis coerulea EIMER 1874
Lacerta faraglionensis BEDRIAGA 1874
Lacerta sicula coerulea — TADDEI 1949: 227

Podarcis siculus corsica (BEDRIAGA)
Lacerta sicula coerulea — TADDEI 1949: 233

Podarcis siculus dupinici (RADOVANOVIC 1956)
Lacerta sicula dupinici RADOVANOVIC 1956: 42
Podarcis sicula dupinici — TIEDEMANN et al. 1994

Podarcis siculus fasciatus (RADOVANOVIC 1956)
Lacerta sicula fasciata RADOVANOVIC 1956: 49

Podarcis siculus fiumanoideus (BRELIH 1963)
Lacerta sicula fiumanoidea BRELIH 1963: 110

Podarcis siculus flavigulus (MERTENS 1937)
Lacerta sicula flavigula MERTENS 1937: 336
Podarcis sicula flavigula — TIEDEMANN et al. 1994

Podarcis siculus gallensis (EIMER 1881)
Lacerta sicula gallensis — MERTENS 1934: 97
Lacerta sicula gallensis — TADDEI 1949: 227
Lacerta sicula gallensis — MERTENS 1961: 33

Podarcis siculus hieroglyphica (BERTHOLD 1840)
Lacerta hieroglyphica — BERTHOLD 1840
Lacerta hieroglyphica — BERTHOLD 1846: 14
Lacerta serpa var. hieroglyphica — WERNER 1905
Lacerta sicula hieroglyphica – BIRD 1936
Podarcis sicula hieroglyphica – CEVIK 1999
Podarcis siculus hieroglyphicus — BÖHME & KÖHLER 2005 (by implication)

Podarcis siculus insularus (MERTENS 1937)
Lacerta sicula insularum MERTENS 1937: 334
Lacerta sicula insularum — TADDEI 1950: 150
Podarcis sicula insularum — TIEDEMANN et al. 1994: 47
Podarcis sicula insularum — MAYER & PODNAR 2002

Podarcis siculus klemmeri (LANZA & CAPOLONGO 1972)
Lacerta sicula klemmeri LANZA & CAPOLONGO 1972

Podarcis siculus kolombatovici (KARAMAN 1928)
Lacerta serpa kolombatovici KARAMAN 1928: 138

Podarcis siculus laganjensis (RADOVANOVIC 1956)
Lacerta sicula laganjensis RADOVANOVIC 1956: 46
Podarcis sicula laganjensis — TIEDEMANN et al. 1994: 47

Podarcis siculus lanzai (MERTENS 1967)
Lacerta sicula lanzai MERTENS 1967: 131

Podarcis siculus latastei (BEDRIAGA 1879)
Lacerta muralis var. latastei BEDRIAGA 1879: 209
Lacerta sicula latastei — TADDEI 1949: 231
Lacerta sicula latastei — MERTENS 1967: 130

Podarcis siculus massinei (MERTENS 1961)
Lacerta sicula massinei MERTENS 1961: 34

Podarcis siculus mediofasciatus (RADOVANOVIC 1959)
Lacerta sicula fasciata RADOVANOVIC 1956
Lacerta sicula mediofasciata RADOVANOVIC 1959: 423 (nom. nov.)

Podarcis siculus muelleri (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta sicula muelleri TADDEI 1949

Podarcis siculus palmarolae (MERTENS 1967)
Lacerta sicula palmarolae MERTENS 1967: 134

Podarcis siculus pasquinii (LANZA 1952)
Lacerta sicula pasquinii LANZA 1952
Lacerta sicula pasquinii MERTENS 1967: 136

Podarcis siculus patrizii (LANZA 1952)
Lacerta sicula patrizii LANZA 1952: 69
Lacerta sicula patrizii — MERTENS 1967: 133

Podarcis siculus paulae (LANZA et al. 1971)
Lacerta sicula paulae LANZA et al. 1971

Podarcis siculus pelagosae (BEDRIAGA 1886)
Lacerta muralis pelagosae BEDRIAGA 1886: 212
Lacerta serpa var. Pelagosae SCHREIBER 1912
Lacerta serpa var. cazzae SCHREIBER 1912
Lacerta sicula cazzae — MERTENS 1934: 97
Lacerta sicula pelagosae — TADDEI 1949: 235
Lacerta sicula cazzae — TADDEI 1950: 149
Podarcis sicula pelagosae — TIEDEMANN et al. 1994

Podarcis siculus pirosoensis (MERTENS 1937)
Lacerta sicula pirosoënsis MERTENS 1937: 335
Podarcis sicula pirosoensis — TIEDEMANN et al. 1994

Podarcis siculus pohlibensis (RADOVANOVIC 1970)
Lacerta sicula pohlibensis RADOVANOVIC 1970: 61

Podarcis siculus polenci (BRELIH 1961)
Lacerta sicula polenci BRELIH 1961

Podarcis siculus premudanus (RADOVANOVIC 1959)
Lacerta sicula premudana RADOVANOVIC 1959: 418

Podarcis siculus premudensis (RADOVANOVIC 1959)
Lacerta sicula premudensis RADOVANOVIC 1959: 419

Podarcis siculus radovanovici (BRELIH 1961)
Lacerta sicula radovanovici BRELIH 1961

Podarcis siculus ragusae (WETTSTEIN 1931)
Lacerta sicula ragusae WETTSTEIN 1931
Podarcis sicula ragusae — TIEDEMANN et al. 1994

Podarcis siculus roberti (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta sicula roberti TADDEI 1949

Podarcis siculus salfii (LANZA 1954)
Lacerta sicula salfii LANZA 1954: 136
Lacerta sicula salfii — MERTENS 1961: 36

Podarcis siculus samogradi (RADOVANOVIC 1956)
Lacerta sicula samogradi RADOVANOVIC 1956: 39
Podarcis sicula samogradi — TIEDEMANN et al. 1994

Podarcis siculus sanctinicolai (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta sicula sancti-nicolai — TADDEI 1949: 235

Podarcis siculus sanctistephani (MERTENS 1926)
Lacerta sicula sancti-stephani MERTENS 1926: 320
Lacerta sicula sancti-stephani — TADDEI 1949: 229
Lacerta sicula sanctistephani — MERTENS 1967: 130

Podarcis siculus scopelicus (TADDEI 1950)
Lacerta sicula scopelica TADDEI 1950: 151

Podarcis siculus scorteccii (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta sicula scorteccii TADDEI 1949

Podarcis siculus siculus (RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ 1810: 8)
Lacerta sicula RAFINESQUE-SCHMALTZ 1810: 8
Lacerta acrolampra COSTA 1828
Lacerta serpa major MERTENS 1916
Lacerta sicula mertensi WETTSTEIN 1931: 280 (nom. nov. pro major)
Lacerta sicula ventotenensis TADDEI 1949: 230 (fide LANZA 1973)
Lacerta sicula liscabiancae MERTENS 1952: 309
Lacerta sicula trischittai MERTENS 1952: 311
Lacerta sicula trischittai LANZA 1954
Lacerta sicula liscabiancae LANZA 1954
Lacerta sicula liscabiancae MERTENS 1955: 38
Lacerta sicula trischittai MERTENS 1955: 37
Podarcis sicula sicula — HENLE & KLAVER 1986

Podarcis siculus strombolensis (TADDEI 1949)
Lacerta sicula strombolensis TADDEI 1949: 217

Podarcis siculus tyrrhenicus (MERTENS 1932)
Lacerta sicula tyrrhenica MERTENS 1932: 244
Lacerta sicula tirrenica — TADDEI 1949: 22 (in error)
Podarcis siculus tyrrhenicus — GEBHART 2011

Podarcis siculus vesseljuchi (RADOVANOVIC 1959)
Lacerta sicula vesseljuchi RADOVANOVIC 1959: 421

Podarcis siculus zaratinus (TADDEI 1950)
Lacerta sicula zaratina TADDEI 1950: 152

Podarcis siculus zeii (BRELIH 1961)
Lacerta sicula zeii BRELIH 1961 
DistributionS France (and introduced to Corsica), Spain (introduced to Catalonia and a few other coastal areas), Switzerland
Italy (incl. Sicily, Pontinian Islands, Ustica and Cirella islands), (introduced to Menorca) Formentera, possibly Cabrera),
Montenegro, Croatia (incl. Krk), introduced to the United Kingdom (England),
Slovenian and Croatian Adriatic coast, including many offshore islands; Greece,
Turkey (Istanbul region, at the Bosporus shores and some islands of the Marmara Sea),

USA (New York, Eastern Long Island, still expanding; Kansas: urban Topeka [introduced])

acrolampra: Aspromonte, Italy

astorgae: Croatia, Astorga Island; Type locality: Insel Astorga, Istrien

bagnolensis: Croatia, Bagnola Island; Type locality: “Insel Bagnole, Wesküste Istriens”

bolei: Crotia (Istria); Type locality: “Zah. Isra, otok Tovarež (= Tondo piccolo) pri Vrsarju (= Orsera)”.

calabra: Italy (Calabria); Type locality: “Calabria”

campana: Italy; Type locality: “Campania e Basilicata”

campestris: Corsica, Italy, N Yugoslavia, Croatia (e.g. Krk); introduced to USA

cattaroi: Montenegro (Kotor)

cetti: Sardinia, Menorca, S Corsica

coeruleus: Capri

dupinici: Type locality: Mali Dupinic

mediofasciata:

flavigula: Croatia (San Giovanni Faro); Type locality: “Eiland San Giovanni Faro, Westküste Istriens”, paratype locality: Insel San Giovanni Faro, Istrien;

hadzii: Croatia (W Istria); Type locality: Porer cliffs, W Istria, Croatia.

hieroglyphicus: NW Turkey (islands in the Marmara Sea, İstanbul [Bird, 1936; Bodenheimer, 1944; Başoğlu and Baran, 1977; Çevik, 1999]. Bursa and Çakırca, a village about 10 km west of İznik [Uğurtaş et al. 2000], Kazdağları (Hamdibey village) [Hür et al. (2008]. Güzelyalı Municipality Resort, southwest of Mudanya [Mollov 2009]; Type locality: Istanbul.

insularum: Croatia, La Longa Island, Istria; Type locality: “Insel La Longa, Westküste Istriens”

klemmeri: Italy (Campania); Type locality: Licosa Islet, Campania, Italy.

laganjensis: Croatia, peninsula of Istria; Type locality: Mali Laganj

mertensi: S Italy (Paestum)

nikolici: Croatia (W Istria); Type locality: Gusti (= Tondo Grande) Island, West Istria.

oristanensis: Italy; Type locality: “Oristano e dintorni, Isola di Mal di Ventre”

palmarolae: Type locality: “Palmarola”

pasquinii: Italy (Latium); Type locality: Cappello Rock, S of Palmarola Island, Latium, Italy

patrizii: Italy; Type locality: Zannone Island, Latium, Italy.

paulae: Italy; Type locality: Santo Ianni Islet, Basilicata, Italy.

pirosoensis: Croatia, Piroso Grande Island; Type locality: “Insel Piroso Grande, Westküste Istriens”

pohlibensis: Type locality: Pohlib Island.

polenci: Croatia (Istria); Type locality: Calbula Cliffs, West Istria.

premudanus: Type locality: Premuda Island

premudensis: Type locality: Lutrošnjak, northwest of Premuda.

pretneri: Croatia (W Istria); Type locality: Gustinja cliffs (= Gustigna), Pisulj (= Pusiglio) cliffs, West Istria.

radovanovici: Croatia (Istria); Type locality: Orada (= Orata) Cliffs, West Istria.

ragusae: Dubrovnik; Type locality: Ragusa (= Dubrovnik), Dalmatien

salfii: Italy (Campania); Type locality: Vivaro di Nerano Islet, Campania, Italy.

samogradi: Type locality: Samograd

sanctinicolai: Italy; Type locality: “Isola di San Nicola, Tremiti”

sanctistephani: Type locality: San Stefano island near Ventotene, Tyrrhenian Sea.

vesseljuchi: Type locality: Veseljuh Island in the Kornati archipelago

zei: Croatia (W Istria); Type locality: Kal cliffs (= Sc. la Calle), W Istria, Croatia. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesSyntypes: ZFMK 21220–221 [hieroglyphicus]
Syntypes: ZFMK 21322–333, further syntypes (University of Tübingen) seem to be lost. [coeruleus]
Paratypes: NMW [astorgae]
Holotype: SMF, NMW 15521 [dupinici]
Holotype: SMF, Paratypes: NMW [flavigulus]
Paratype: NMW 15738 etc [insularum]
Holotype: NMW15523 [laganjensis]
Paratypes: NMW 15737:1,2 [pirosensis]
Holotype: NMW 16242 (m.) [ragusae]
Holotype: NMW 15519 [samogradi]
Holotype: SMF [bagnolensis]
Holotype: MF (Museo Zoologico, U Firenze) [klemmeri]
Holotype: SMF [lanzai]
Holotype: SMF [insularus]
Holotype: SMF [massinei]
Holotype: SMF [palmarolae]
Holotype: SMF [pirosoensis]
Holotype: SMF [premudanus]
Holotype: SMF [premudensis]
Holotype: SMF [tyrrhenicus]
Holotype: SMF [vesseljuchi]
Holotype: SMF [trischittai]
Holotype: SMF [mertensi]
Holotype: SMF [liscabiancae]
Holotype: BMNH [sanctistephani] 
CommentSubspecies: At least 60 subspecies have been described (Henle & Klaver 1986). Forty-seven of these subspecies are island endemics and most of them have been described on the basis of very small differences and / or using very small samples. It is doubtful that many of these subspecies are diagnosable as separate populations, given the variability of this species. Many subspecies are probably synonymous. Lanza 1954 points out that Lacerta sicula mülleri TADDEI 1948 is pre-occupied by Lacerta lilfordi mülleri EISENTRAUT 1928, and hence suggested the replacement name L. s. müllerlorenzi. Lacerta aetrusca TADDEI 1953 is a synonym of L. s. müllerlorenzi fide LANZA 1954. LANZA 1954 also mentions the subspecies liscabiancae MERTENS 1952: 309 and trischittai MERTENS 1952: 311, both of unknown status. L. acrolampra is probably a melanistic variaty of P. siculus (Schreiber 1912, Henle & Klaver 1986).

Synonymy: partly after TIEDEMANN et al. 1994

Hybridization: Capula (2002) provides genetic evidence of natural hybridization between Podarcis sicula and Podarcis tiliguerta. Melanistic variants are known from Croatia and other places. 
References
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