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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Common Names 
Proctoporus bolivianus — GOICOECHEA et al. 2012: 953 
DistributionPeru (Cusco)

Type locality: road between Marcapata and Tambopampa, (13°35′00.4′′S/71°02′05.1′′W), Province Quispicanchi, Department of Cusco, Peru, 3500 m elevation. Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesHolotype: MHNC 5366 (field number MNCN 4602) (fig. 7), adult male, collected by Ignacio De la Riva, José Manuel Padial, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, and Juan Carlos Chaparro on 20 February 2006.
Paratypes: MNCN 43670–72 (field numbers MNCN 4603, 4605, 4606) adult males, and MNCN 43673 (field number MNCN 4608) adult female, same data as holotype; MHNC 5680 (field number MNCN 4750) , MNCN 44216 (field number MNCN 4744) , MNCN 44218–19 (field numbers MNCN 4746, 4747) adult males, and MHNC 5682–83 (field numbers MNCN 4751, 4752), MHNC 5685 (field number MNCN 4754), MNCN 44217 (field number MNCN 4745), MNCN 44220–21 (field numbers MNCN 4748, 4749), adult females, from Huancarayo, Marcapata Valley, Province Quispicanchis, Department of Cusco, Peru, 3368 m, collected by Ignacio De la Riva, José Manuel Padial, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, and Juan Carlos Chaparro on 31 January 2007. 
CommentDiagnosis: (1) Frontonasal length equal to frontal length; (2) nasoloreal suture present; (3) supraoculars three; (4) superciliaries 3–4, first expanded onto dorsal surface of head; (5) postocu- lars two; (6) palpebral disc made up of a single, undivided scale; (7) four supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular; (8) two pairs of genials in contact; (9) dorsal body scales quadrangular, slightly keeled; (10) transverse rows of dorsals 34–35; (11) transverse ventral rows 23; (12) a continuous series of small lateral scales separating dorsals from ventrals; (13) posterior cloacal plate made up of six scales in both sexes; (14) anterior preanal plate scales paired; (15) femoral pores per hind limb in males 5–6; (16) preanal pores absent; (17) subdigital lamellae on toe IV 19–21; subdigital lamellae on toe V 6–13; (18) limbs not overlapping when adpressed against body on adults; (19) pentadactyl; digits clawed; (20) dorsum dark brown with- out laterodorsal stripes; lateral ocelli absent; ventral surfaces dark with some light mottling on lateral side of scales; throat paler than rest of the body, with more evident cream splitting.
Specimens of Proctoporus carabaya show the presence of an undivided palpebral disc, which identifies them as members of the genus Proctoporus, as opposed to Riama or Petracola (Doan and Castoe, 2005; Uzzell, 1970). Proctoporus carabaya can be distinguished from P. pachyurus by having three supraoculars (four in P. pachyurus) and fewer transverse dorsal scale rows (34–35 in P. carabaya, 47–60 in P. pachyurus); from P. sucullucu, by having limbs not overlapping when adpressed and loreal scale not in contact with supralabials (loreal in contact with second and third supralabials in P. sucullucu); from P. bolivianus by being larger and having the frontonasal sub- equal to frontal; from P. unsaacae and P. guentheri by having the loreal not in contact with supra- labials and by the absence of a series of ocelli (present in both P. unsaacae and P. guentheri); from P. kiziriani by having first supraocular fused with first superciliary and the lack of dorsolateral stripes; from P. iridescens by having four supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular (three in P. iridescens), presence of loreal scale (absent in P. iridescens), and two pairs of genials in contact (three pairs in P. iridescens); from P. lacertus by having first supraocular fused with first superciliary (not fused in P. lacertus) and a loreal scale (absent in P. lacertus); from P. xestus by the lack of prefrontal scales (present in P. xestus) and having keeled dorsal scales (smooth in P. xestus); and from P. chasqui by the lack of prefrontal scales.

Habitat: during the day under logs and stones. 
EtymologyThe specific terms refers both to the province and the mountain range where the species occurs, the Cordillera de Carabaya, one of the most spectacular formations in the Andes of southern Peru. 
  • Goicoechea, NoemÍ; José M. Padial, Juan Carlos Chaparro, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, and Ignacio De La Riva 2013. A Taxonomic Revision of Proctoporus bolivianus Werner (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) With the Description of Three New Species and Resurrection of Proctoporus lacertus Stejneger. American Museum Novitates (3786): 1-32. - get paper here
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