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Proctoporus lacertus (STEJNEGER, 1913)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Common Names 
SynonymOreosaurus lacertus STEJNEGER 1913: 546
Proctoporus obesus BARBOUR & NOBLE 1920: 616
Proctoporus bolivianus — GOICOECHEA et al. 2012: 953 
DistributionPeru (Cusco), elevation 2800-4019 m.

Type locality: Tincochaca, Province La Convención, Department of Cusco, Peru, 2800 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 49551, adult male. Paratypes: USNM 49551, same data as holotype; USNM 49549 from Ollantaytambo, Province Urubamba, Department of Cusco, Peru, 2792 m; MCZ 12085 and MCZ 12087 from Tincochaca, Province La Convención, Department of Cusco, Peru, 2800 m.
Holotype: USNM 60748 [Proctoporus obesus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: (1) Frontonasal length usually equal to frontal length; (2) nasoloreal suture absent; (3) three supraoculars; (4) 3–4 superciliaries, first expanded onto dorsal surface of head; (5) postoculars two; (6) palpebral disc made up of a single, undivided scale; (7) four supralabi- als anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular; (8) two pair of genials in contact; (9) dorsal body scales quadrangular, slightly keeled; (10) transverse rows of dorsals 36–40; (11) transverse ventral rows 22–24; (12) a continuous series of small lateral scales separating dorsals from ventrals; (13) posterior cloacal plate made up of six scales in both sexes; (14) anterior preanal plate scales paired; (15) femoral pores per hind limb in males six; (16) preanal pores absent; (17) subdigital lamellae on toe IV 16–22; subdigital lamellae on toe V 5–13; (18) limbs not overlapping when adpressed against body in adults; (19) pentadactyl; digits clawed; (20) dorsum dark gray; lateral surface of head like dorsal surface, lip irregularly barred with cream coloring; ventral surface of head cream with clumps of black stippling on each scale; pregular region like head but with fainter stippling.
Specimens of Proctoporus lacertus show the presence of an undivided palpebral disc, which identifies them as members of the genus Proctoporus, as opposed to Riama and Petracola (Doan and Castoe, 2005; Uzzell, 1970). Proctoporus lacertus can be distinguished from P. pachyurus by having three supraoculars (four in P. pachyurus) and 36–40 transverse dorsal scale rows (47–60 in P. pachyurus); from P. sucullucu by having limbs not overlapping when adpressed against body and the lack of loreal scale (present in P. sucullucu); from P. bolivianus by having frontonasal length subequal to frontal length (P. bolivianus has frontonasal longer than frontal); from P. unsaacae and P. guentheri by the lack of both loreal scale and a continuous series of lateral ocelli; from P. kiziriani by the lack of loreal scale (present in P. kiziriani) and by having darker dorsal background color; from P. carabaya by the lack of loreal scale and first supraocular not fused with first superciliary; from P. iridescens by having three supralabials anterior to the posteroventral angle of the subocular and two pairs of genials in contact (three supralabials and three pairs of genials in P. iridescens); from P. xestus by the lack of prefrontal scales (present in P. xestus) and by having keeled dorsal scales (smooth in P. xestus); and from P. chasqui by the lack of prefrontal scales. 
CommentSynonymy: Uzzell (1970) synonymized P. lacertus Stejneger, along with Proctoporus obesus Barbour and Noble and Proctoporus longicaudatus Andersson, with P. bolivianus. The species has been resurrected from the synonymy of P. bolivianus by GOICOECHEA et al. 2013. Proctoporus obesus was described from a single specimen from Ñusta Hispana, Cusco, Peru (Barbour and Noble, 1920). The holotype of this species is damaged, and many of the characters presented in the original description as well as in subsequent revisions (Uzzell, 1970; Doan and Castoe, 2003) had to be guessed by GOICOECHEA et al. 2013.

  • Andersson, L.G. 1914. A new Telmatobius and new teiid lizards from South America. Arkiv för Zoologi 9 (3): 1-12 - get paper here
  • Barbour, Thomas & Noble, G. K. 1921. Amphibians and reptiles from southern Peru collected by the Peruvian expedition of 1914-1915 under the auspices of Yale University and the National Geographic Society. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 58 (2352): 609-620 [1920] - get paper here
  • Dirksen, L. & De la Riva, I. 1999. The lizards and amphisbaenians of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata): checklist, localities, and bibliography. Graellsia 55: 199-215
  • Doan, T. M. & Castoe, T.A. 2003. Using morphological and molecular evidence to infer species boundaries within Proctoporus bolivianus Werner (Squamata: Gymnopthalmidae). Herpetologica 59 (3): 432–449 - get paper here
  • Doan, T.F.; Castoe, T.A. & Arizábal Arriaga, W. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Proctoporus sensu stricto (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), with a new species from Puno, Southeastern Peru. Herpetologica 61 (3): 325-336 - get paper here
  • Doan, T.M. 2003. A south-to-north biogeographic hypothesis for Andean speciation: evidence from the lizard genus Proctoporus (Reptilia, Gymnophthalmidae). Journal of Biogeography 30: 361–374
  • Doan, T.M. & Schargel, W.E. 2003. Bridging the gap in Proctoporus distribution: a new species (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Andes of Venezuela. Herpetologica 59 (1): 68-75 - get paper here
  • Goicoechea, Noemí; José M. Padial, Juan C. Chaparro, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, Ignacio De la Riva 2013. Molecular phylogenetics, species diversity, and biogeography of the Andean lizards of the genus Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 65, Issue 3, December 2012, Pages 953–964 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. and E. Lehr 2004. Comments on Euspondylus and Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Peru, with the description of three new species and a key to the Peruvian species. Herpetologica 60 (4):501-518 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2007. Neue Schieneneidechse aus den Anden im Süden Perus. Draco 7 (27): 88 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, Leonhard 1913. Results of the Yale Peruvian Expedition of 1911.—Batrachians and reptiles. Proc. US. Natl. Mus. 45 (1992): 541-547 - get paper here
  • Werner,F. 1910. Über neue oder seltene Reptilien des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. ii. Eidechsen. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst., vol. 27 (1909), suppl. no. 2, 1910, pp. 1-46; reprinted: 1910, Mitteil. Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg, vol. 27: 205-) - get paper here
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