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Proctoporus oreades (CHÁVEZ, SIU-TING, DURAN & VENEGAS, 2011)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymEuspondylus oreades CHÁVEZ, SIU-TING, DURAN & VENEGAS 2011
Proctoporus oreades — TORRES-CARVAJAL et al. 2016 
DistributionC Peru

Type locality: Perú, Pasco Department, Santa Barbara (10°20’29.1’’S; 75°38’27.1’’W), at 3439 m of elevation  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: CORBIDI 07219, Adult male (Fig 3.a-b), collected by Caroll Z. Landauro, Lesly Luján, Vilma Duran and Pablo J. Venegas on 23 September 2010. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: 1) Frontonasal length usually equal or slightly larger than frontal length; (2) nasoloreal suture present; (3) supraoculars four, anteriormost supraocular fused with anteriormost superciliary, all supraoculars separated from ciliaries; (4) su- perciliary series complete, four; (5) supralabial-subocular fusion absent; (6) postoculars three; (7) postparietals three; (8) supratympanic temporals three; (9) genials in two pairs, transverse sutures perpendicular with respect to midline of body; (10) dorsal scales quadrangular, juxtaposed, keeled; (11) transverse dorsal count (enlarged rows at midbody) at midbody 20–26 in both sexes; (12) longitudinal dorsal count 37–43 in both sexes; (13) longitudinal ventral count 20–22 in both sexes; (14) lateral scale rows at midbody two; (15) femoral pores in males 3–8, in females 2–8; two scales be- tween femoral pores; (16) subdigital scales on 4th finger 5–13, on 4th toe 10–19; (17) limbs overlapping, pentadactyl; digits clawed; forelimb reaching anteriorly to fourth supralabial; (18) anterior preanal plate scales paired; (19) hemipenis acapitate; flounces forming two chevrons on distal half of hemipenis whereas basal half is covered with one or two transverse flounces; asulcate flounces separated by a small expansion pleat; sulcate flounces about as wide as asulcate flounces; sulcus spermaticus single, flanked by a broad naked expansion pleat widened distally and divided by a small protru- sion; (20) dorsum brown or pale brown with a middorsal pale stripe bordered by an discontinous dark line on neck and body; lateral ocelli usually absent; ventral surfaces white or creamy white; (21) transparent lower palpebral disc an undivided oval; (22) prefrontals usually present.
Euspondylus oreades can be distinguished from the Peruvian species of Euspondylus by the following character states (condition for E. oreades in parentheses). E. maculatus and E. guentheri: lower palpebral disc with vertical sections (palpebral disc an undivided oval), dorsal scales smooth or wrinkled (keeled), and longitudinal dorsal count 32–37 (36–43). E. caideni: maximum SVL = 82.0 mm (61.0 mm), pale middorsal stripe absent (present), dorsal scales reduced in size above longitudinal band of laterals granules (not reduced), longitudinal dorsal count 41–48 (36–43). E. josyi: pale middorsal stripe absent (present), supraoculars three, exceptionally four (always four) limb overlapping 10–13 dorsal scales (10–11) and longitudinal dorsal count 29–35 (36–43). E. rahmi: anteriormost supraocu- lar not fused with anterior most superciliar (fused), dorsal scales reduced in size above longitudinal band of lateral granules (not reduced), longitudinal dorsal count 49–54 (36–43) and maximum SVL to 71.0 mm (61.0 mm). E. simonsii: a pale line between the tympanum and shoulder present (absent), dorsal scales smooth or only faintly keeled on posterior dorsum (all dorsal scales keeled), transversal count at midbody less than 35 scales (40–46) and longitudinal dorsal count 33–39 (36–43). E. spinalis: head acuminate from dorsal and lateral view (rounded), dorsal scales reduced in size above longitudinal band of lateral granules (not reduced), subdigital lamellae of fourth toe 20–24 (11–19), longitudinal dorsal count 39–46 (32–43), femoral pores on one side in females 1–6 (4–8), supracaudal scales only faintly keeled or smooth (strongly keeled) and lateral ocelli usually present (usually absent). E. nellycarrillae: dorsal scales subhexagonal (rectangular), longi- tudinal dorsal count 41–49 (36–43) femoral pores of one side 12–15 in males, 12–14 in females (6–8 in males, 2–5 in females). E. chasqui: superciliar series five (four), subdigital scales on the fourth toe 17–26 (13–19), femoral pores of the one side 8–11 in males, 7–10 in females (6–8 in males, 2–5 in females) and maximum SVL = 74.0 mm (61.0 mm).
Euspondylus oreades can be distinguished from all species currently assigned to Pe- tracola, Proctoporus, and Riama by the presence of prefrontal scales (absent in all spe- cies in these three genera). E. oreades can be further distinguished by the following character states (condition for E. oreades in parentheses) from all Bolivian and Peruvian species of Proctoporus except P. pachyurus and P. bolivianus: longitudinal dorsal count fewer than 36 scale rows (37–43 scale rows). P. pachyurus: longitudinal dorsal count 49–59 (37–43). P. bolivianus: four or five supralabials (six or seven). All Petracola and Riama species: lower palpebral disc with vertical sections (palpebral disc an undivided oval). All northern Ecuadorian Riama species except R. columbiana: no band of granu- lar scales along the sides of body between dorsal and ventral scales (granular scales present). R. columbiana: limbs not overlapping when adpressed against body in adults (limbs overlapping), superciliary series incomplete (complete), and some supraoculars in contact with ciliaries (all supraoculars separated from ciliaries).
Euspondylus oreades can be distinguished from Opipeuter xestus (condition for E. oreades in parentheses): smooth dorsal scales (keeled); having a single large elongate subocular scale (several small subocular scales); and in hemipenis morphology, large spines at the base of the sulcus spermaticus (no such spines present in E. oreades) [from CHÁVEZ et al. 2011]. 
CommentAbundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe specific name oreades refers to the Oreades, nymphs of Greek mythology. These feminine spirits lived and protected isolated mountains and caves, places that recall the type locality where this species was found. 
  • Chávez, Germán;, Karen Siu-Ting, Vilma Duran, Pablo J Venegas 2011. Two new species of Andean gymnophthalmid lizards of the genus Euspondylus (Reptilia, Squamata) from central and southern Peru. ZooKeys 109: 1–17 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Simón E. Lobos, Pablo J. Venegas, Germán Chávez, Vanessa Aguirre-Peñafiel, Daniel Zurita, Lourdes Y. Echevarría 2016. Phylogeny and biogeography of the most diverse clade of South American gymnophthalmid lizards (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae, Cercosaurinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 99: 63-75, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.03.006
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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