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Proctoporus pachyurus TSCHUDI, 1845

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria (lizards) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesTschudi's Lightbulb Lizard 
SynonymProctoporus pachyurus TSCHUDI 1845: 161
Proctoporus pachyurus – PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970: 239
Proctoporus pachyurus — DOAN & SCHARGEL 2003 
DistributionPeru (Junin), elevation 2770–3800 m

Type locality: Valley of Río Chanchamayo, eastern slope of Andes, Peru Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Types 
CommentType Species: Proctoporus pachyurus is the type species of the genus Proctoporus TSCHUDI 1845 sensu strictu (fide DOAN & CASTOE 2005).

The P. pachyurus group (UZZELL 1958), unified by the presence of a single palpebral scale over the eye, a median occipital, and squarish pregular scales that do not form chevrons (Uzzell, 1970; Doan & Castoe, 2003), included P. bolivianus Werner, P. guentheri, and P. pachyurus. Doan & Castoe (2003) added two additional new species, P. sucullucu and P. unsaacae (after DOAN & CASTOE 2005).

Definition of Proctoporus sensu strictu: Tongue with imbricate, scalelike papillae. Head scales smooth without striations or rugosities: single frontonasal, frontal, and interparietal; paired frontoparietals and parietals; prefrontals absent; nostril pierced in a single nasal; nasals not in contact. Eyelids developed, lower with an undivided translucent disc. Posterior gulars squarish. Limbs pentadactyl; digits clawed. Dorsal scales quadrangular, elongate, keeled, juxtaposed, forming transverse series only. Ventrals large, smooth, quadrangular, juxtaposed, forming regular longitudinal and transverse series. Femoral pores present in males, sometimes absent in females; preanal pores absent in both sexes. Tail cylindrical (after DOAN & CASTOE 2005).

Diagnosis of Proctoporus sensu strictu: Proctoporus differs from members of subfamily Alopoglossinae by having its tongue covered in imbricate, scale-like papillae instead of oblique plicae (Harris, 1994), from Gymnophthalminae by having moveable eyelids, from Rhachisaurinae by having external ear openings and from Ecpelopinae by lacking prefrontal scales. Within Cercosaurinae (sensu Castoe et al., 2004), Proctoporus differs from all genera except Pholidobolus, Riama, and Petracola by lacking prefrontal scales. It differs from Riama by having an entire palpebral eye disc, from Petracola by having keeled dorsal scales and from Pholidobolus by having juxtaposed dorsal scales (after DOAN & CASTOE 2005. 
References
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotrop. 13(4): 269-283
  • Doan, T. M. & Castoe, T.A. 2003. Using morphological and molecular evidence to infer species boundaries within Proctoporus bolivianus Werner (Squamata: Gymnopthalmidae). Herpetologica 59 (3): 432–449 - get paper here
  • Doan, T.F.; Castoe, T.A. & Arizábal Arriaga, W. 2005. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Proctoporus sensu stricto (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), with a new species from Puno, Southeastern Peru. Herpetologica 61 (3): 325-336 - get paper here
  • Doan, T.M. 2003. A south-to-north biogeographic hypothesis for Andean speciation: evidence from the lizard genus Proctoporus (Reptilia, Gymnophthalmidae). Journal of Biogeography 30: 361–374
  • Goicoechea, Noemí; José M. Padial, Juan C. Chaparro, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, Ignacio De la Riva 2013. Molecular phylogenetics, species diversity, and biogeography of the Andean lizards of the genus Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 65, Issue 3, December 2012, Pages 953–964 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. and E. Lehr 2004. Comments on Euspondylus and Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) from Peru, with the description of three new species and a key to the Peruvian species. Herpetologica 60 (4):501-518 - get paper here
  • Tschudi,J. J. von 1845. Reptilium conspectum quae in republica Peruana reperiuntur er pleraque observata vel collecta sunt in itenere. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 11 (1): 150-170 [reprint 1968, SSAR; sometimes cited as being published in 1846]. - get paper here
  • Uzzell,T.M. 1958. Teiid lizards related to Proctoporus luctuosus, with the description of a new species from Venezuela. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 597: 1-15
 
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