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Proctoporus xestus (UZZELL, 1969)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesRiver Teiid 
SynonymOpipeuter xestus UZZELL 1969
Opipeuter xestus — CEI 1993
Opipeuter xestus — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Proctoporus xestus — GOICOECHEA et al. 2013 
DistributionBolivia (Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Santa Cruz), Argentina (Jujuy, Salta), Peru

Type locality: Incachaca, Cochabamba, Bolivia, 2200 m elevation  
TypesHolotype: UMMZ 128835 
CommentType species: Opipeuter xestus UZZELL 1969 is the type species of the genus Opipeuter UZZELL 1969. Opipeuter has been synonymized with Proctoporus by Goicoechea et al. 2013.

Proctoporus and Opipeuter have been distinguished by the presence of prefrontal scales in Opipeuter and absence in Proctoporus, but this character has been demon- strated to be highly variable within members of the family Gymno- phthalmidae (Köhler and Lehr, 2004). Indeed, prefrontal scales are present in both O. xestus and the two species of Euspondylus that are nested within Proctoporus in our analyses, proving the highly homoplastic condition of this character state. Proctoporus species and O. xestus also share the condition of a transparent disc in the lower eyelid, a character that nonetheless appears in Potamites and other Gymnophtalmids (Doan and Castoe, 2005), being thus either homoplastic or symplesiomorphic. 
  • AVILA, LUCIANO JAVIER; LORENA ELIZABETH MARTINEZ & MARIANA MORANDO 2013. Checklist of lizards and amphisbaenians of Argentina: an update. Zootaxa 3616 (3): 201–238
  • Dirksen, L. & De la Riva, I. 1999. The lizards and amphisbaenians of Bolivia (Reptilia, Squamata): checklist, localities, and bibliography. Graellsia 55: 199-215
  • Goicoechea, Noemí; José M. Padial, Juan C. Chaparro, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, Ignacio De la Riva 2013. Molecular phylogenetics, species diversity, and biogeography of the Andean lizards of the genus Proctoporus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 65, Issue 3, December 2012, Pages 953–964 - get paper here
  • Harvey, M. B. 1997. Reptiles and amphibians from the vicinity of El Palmar in the Andes of Chuquisaca. In: Schulenberg, T. & Awbrey, K. (eds.), A rapid assessment of the humid forests of south centra Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Conservation International, Washington , RAP Working Papers 8: 33-36, 83-84.
  • Köhler, G. & Vesely, M. 2007. The hemipenis of Opipeuter xestus (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae). Salamandra 43 (1): 49-51 - get paper here
  • Köhler, J., L. DIRKSEN, P. L. IBISCH, G. RAUER, D. RUDOLPH & W. BÖHME 1995. Zur Herpetofauna des Sehuencas-Bergregenwaldes im Carrasco-Nationalpark, Bolivien. Herpetofauna 17 (96): 12-25 - get paper here
  • Lehr, E. 2002. Amphibien und Reptilien in Peru. Natur und Tier-Verlag (Münster), 208 pp. - get paper here
  • Uzzell, Thomas 1969. A new genus and species of Teiid lizard from Bolivia. Postilla (129): 1-15 - get paper here
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