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Protobothrops jerdonii (GÜNTHER, 1875)

IUCN Red List - Protobothrops jerdonii - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
SubspeciesProtobothrops jerdonii jerdonii (GÜNTHER 1875)
Protobothrops jerdonii bourreti (KLEMMER 1963)
Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas (GÜNTHER 1889) 
Common NamesJerdon’s pitviper; bourreti: Bourret’s pitviper, xanthomelas: Red spotted pitviper 
SynonymTrimeresurus jerdonii GÜNTHER 1875
Trimeresurus xanthomelas GÜNTHER 1889: 221
Lachesis jerdoni — VENNING 1910: 775
Lachesis melli VOGT 1922
Trimeresurus jerdonii meridionalis BOURRET 1935
Trimeresurus jerdoni — SMITH 1943: 510
Trimeresurus jerdonii bourreti KLEMMER 1963
Protobothrops jerdonii - HOGE & ROMANO-HOGE 1983
Protobothrops jerdonii — TU et al. 2000
Trimeresurus jerdoni — SHARMA 2004

Protobothrops jerdonii bourreti (KLEMMER 1963)
Protobothrops jerdonii bourreti — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Protobothrops jerdonii bourreti — ORLOV et al. 2009

Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonii (GÜNTHER 1875)
Trimeresurus jerdonii GÜNTHER 1875
Lachesis jerdonii BOULENGER 1896
Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonii — WELCH 1994: 103
Protobothrops jerdonii jerdonii — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004

Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas (GÜNTHER 1889)
Trimeresurus xanthomelas GÜNTHER 1889
Trimeresurus jerdonii xanthomelas MASLIN 1942
Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas — WELCH 1994: 103
Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas — GUMPRECHT et al. 2004
Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas — ORLOV et al. 2009
Protobothrops jerdonii xanthomelas — LOVE 2010 
DistributionIndia (Assam; Arunachal Pradesh (Siddi (= Gandhigram) – Changlang district) [A. Captain, pers. Comm.] and many other regions), Nepal,
N Myanmar (= Burma), N Vietnam,
SW China (east to Guangxi and Hubei, north to Henan and west to Gansu; Yunnan, Szechwan), elevation 1200-1470 m

jerdonii: India (Assam), Myanmar (= Burma), China (Yunnan)
meridionalis: N Vietnam; Type locality: Khasi Hills, India.

xanthomelas: China (Szechwan, Hupeh), India (Arunachal Pradesh) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 196.1.18.66–68) 
CommentVenomous!

Reproduction: Only member of Protobothrops that is viviparous.

Subspecies: The subspecies meridionalis is not recognized by GUMPRECHT et al. 2004.

Distribution: Possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012).

DIAGNOSIS (DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS).— Scales in 21 longitudinal rows at midbody (rarely 23); snout length a little more than twice diameter of eye; head above, except for large internasals and supraoculars, covered by small, unequal, smooth scales that are feebly imbricate or juxtaposed; first labial completely separated from nasal by a suture; internasals separated by 1–2 small scales; 6–9 small scales in line between supraoculars; 7–8 upper labials, third and fourth beneath eye, in contact with subocular or separated by at most a single series of small scales; ventrals (see Remarks below): males 164–188, females 167–193; subcaudals: males 50–78, females 44–76. Total length males 835 mm, females 990 mm; tail length males 140 mm, females 160 mm. [after LEVITON 2003] 
EtymologyEtymology: Named after Thomas Claverhill Jerdon (1811-1872), British physician, zoologist, and botanist who became an Assistant Surgeon in the East India Company. 
References
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A. & Ryabow, S. 2004. Asian pitvipers. Geitje Books, Berlin, 368 pp.
  • Günther,A. 1875. Second report on collections of Indian Reptiles obtained bv the British Museum. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1875: 224-234 - get paper here
  • Günther,A. 1889. Third contribution to ourknowledge of reptiles and fishes from the Upper Yangtsze-Kiang. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 4 (21): 218-229 - get paper here
  • Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A. & Li, C. 2009. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica 91: 402-407
  • Guo, Peng; Lu, Shunqing; Huang, Song; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Ermi 2006. Hemipenial morphology of five Asian pitvipers, with a discussion on their taxonomy. Amphibia-Reptilia 27 (1): 19-23 - get paper here
  • Hoge, A. R. & S. A. R. W. L. Romano-Hoge 1983. Mem. Instituto Butantan, São Paulo 44/45: 87
  • Huang, Xin; Liang Zhang, Xiaoxue Zhu, Tao Pan, Hui Wang, and Baowei Zhang 2013. Mitochondrial genome of Protobothrops jerdonii (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Mitochondrial DNA 24 (3): 225-227 - get paper here
  • Inger R F; Zhao E; Bradley Shaffer H; Guanfu Wu 1990. Report on a collection of amphibians and reptiles from Sichuan, China. Fieldiana: Zoology (No. 58) : i-iii, 1-24 - get paper here
  • Klemmer,K. 1963. Liste der rezenten Giftschlangen. Elapidae, Hydropheidae [sic], Viperidae und Crotalidae. In: Die Giftschlangen der Erde. Behringwerk-Mitteilungen, spec. Suppl., Marburg.
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karslruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karslruhe, 124 pp.
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Guinevere O.U. Wogan; Michelle S. Koo; George R. Zug; Rhonda S. Lucas and Jens V. 2003. The Dangerously Venomous Snakes of Myanmar Illustrated Checklist with Keys. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 54 (24): 407–462
  • Love, B. 2010. Die China-Connection. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (82): 14-15 - get paper here
  • Orlov, N.; Ananjeva, N.; Barabanov, A.; Ryabov, S. & Khalikov, R. 2002. Diversity of vipers (Azemiopinae, Crotalinae) in East, Southeast, and South Asia: annotated checklist and natural history data (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Faun. Abh. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 23: 177-218
  • Orlov, Nikolai L.; Sergei A. Ryabov, and Nguyen Thien Tao 2009. Two New Species of Genera Protobothrops Hoge et Romano-Hoge, 1983 and Viridovipera Malhotra et Thorpe, 2004 (Ophidia: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Karst Region in Northeastern Vietnam. Part I. Description of a New Species of Protobothrops Genus. Russian Journal of Herpetology 16 (1): 69-82 - get paper here
  • PAN, Hujun; Basundhara CHETTRI, Daode YANG, Ke JIANG, Kai WANG, Liang ZHANG and Gernot VOGEL 2013. A New Species of the Genus Protobothrops (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southern Tibet, China and Sikkim, India. Asian Herpetological Research 4(2): 109–115
  • Sang, Nguyen Van; Ho Thu Cuc, Nguyen, Quang Truong 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Tu, M.-C. et al. 2000. Phylogeny, Taxonomy, and Biogeography of the Oriental Pitvipers of the Genus Trimeresurus (Reptilia: Viperidae: Crotalinae): A Molecular Perspective. ZOOLOGICAL SCIENCE 17: 1147–1157
  • Venning, F.E.W. 1910. Further notes on snakes from the Chin Hills. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 20: 770-775 - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1906. The poisonous snakes of India and how to recognize them, Part II. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 17: 299-334 - get paper here
  • Whitaker, Romulus<br />and Ashok Captain 2004. Snakes of India. Draco Books, 500 pp. - get paper here
  • YANG, JIAN-HUAN; NIKOLAI L. ORLOV & YING-YONG WANG 2011. A new species of pitviper of the genus Protobothrops from China (Squamata: Viperidae) Zootaxa 2936: 59–68 - get paper here
  • ZAMBRE, AMOD; CHINTAN SHETH, SHASHANK DALVI AND NIRMAL KULKARNI 2009. FIRST RECORD OF PROTOBOTHROPS JERDONII XANTHOMELAS (GÜNTHER, 1889) FROM EAGLENEST WILDLIFE SANCTUARY, INDIA. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 106 (2): 325-327 - get paper here
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
 
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