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Protobothrops maolanensis YANG, ORLOV & WANG, 2011

IUCN Red List - Protobothrops maolanensis - Data Deficient, DD

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Mao-lan pitviper
Chinese: 茂兰原矛头蝮 
SynonymProtobothrops maolanensis YANG, ORLOV & WANG 2011
Protobothrops maolanensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 573
Protobothrops cf. maolanensis — KROPACHEV et al. 2015 
DistributionChina (Guizhou, Guangxi), Vietnam (Ha Giang)

Type locality: Maolan National Nature Reserve, Maolan town, Libo County, Guizhou, China (25°12'50.0'' N, 107°59'56.04'' E, 560 m elevation.  
TypesHolotype: SYS r000211, adult male (Fig. 1 in YANG et al. 2011), collected by Sheng Zheng and Jian-Huan Yang on 18 May 2010. Paratypes. SYS r000210, adult male, same data as holotype. SYS r000276, adult male and SYS r000277, adult female, from the same locality as holotype, collected by Jian-Huan Yang, Yun Li and Run-Lin Li on 10 August 2010. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Protobothrops maolanensis sp. nov. differs from other species of Protobothrops by the combina- tion of the following characters: (1) a relatively small body size (TL 609–805 mm); (2) dorsal scales keeled throughout, in 23(rarely 25): 21(19): 17(15) rows; (3) ventral scales 186–193 in male, 190 in female; (4) subcau- dals 78–85 pairs in male, 74 in female; (5) 7–8 supralabials; (6) 11–12 infralabials; (7) 10–12 scales between mid- section of supraoculars in a line; (8) the 4th supralabials separated from suboculars by one row of scales; (9) 68–72 small and thin body bands across body and tail; (10) TaL/SVL ratio 0.238–0.269 in male, 0.190 in female; (11) SL/ HL ratio 0.308–0.326 in male, 0.344 in female; (12) ED/HL ratio 0.164–0.176 in male, 0.152 in female; and (13) the unique color pattern. See YANG et al. 2011 for differential diagnosis by way of comparison with all other species in the genus. 
CommentChen et al. (2013) found specimens in Guangxi that are intermediary between Protobothrops maolanensis and P. trungkhanhensis.

Distribution: see map in Guo et a. 2016: 383 (Fig. 1).

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet refers to the type locality, Maolan Town, Guizhou, China. 
  • CHEN, Tian-bo; LUO Jian, MENG Yuan-jun, WEN Bo-hao, JIANG Ke 2013. Discovery of Protobothrops maolanensis in Guangxi, with Taxonomic Discussion. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 32 (1): 116-118 - get paper here
  • Gumprecht, Andreas 2012. Aktuelles zur Taxonomie und Systematik asiatischer Grubenottern. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (1): 52-61 - get paper here
  • GUO, PENG; QIN LIU, TAO WEN, RONG XIAO, MING FANG, GUANGHUI ZHONG, NGUYEN Q. TRUONG, FEI ZHU, ROBERT C. JADIN, CAO LI 2016. Multilocus phylogeny of the Asian Lance-headed pitvipers (Squamata, Viperidae, Protobothrops). Zootaxa 4093 (3): 382–390 - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Huang, Xin; Peng Guo, Liang Zhang, Baowei Zhang 2014. Mitochondrial genome of Protobothrops maolanensis (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Mitochondrial DNA 25 (6): 445-446, doi: 10.3109/19401736.2013.814111 - get paper here
  • Kropachev, Ivan I.; Konstantin A. Shiryaev, Tao Thien Nguyen, Nikolai L. Orlov 2015. New Record of Protobothrops cf. maolanensis in Northeastern Vietnam, with Data on Its Morphology and Biology. Russ. J. Herpetol. 22 (2): 93-102
  • LIU, QIN; EDWARD A. MYERS, GUANG H. ZHONG, JIAN HU, HUI ZHAO & PENG GUO 2012. Molecular evidence on the systematic position of the lance-headed pitviper Protobothrops maolanensis Yang et al., 2011. Zootaxa 3178: 57–62 - get paper here
  • Nguyen, Truong Quang 2017. New records of amphibians and reptiles from Ha Giang Province, Vietnam. Herpetology Notes 10: 183-191 - get paper here
  • PAN, Hujun; Basundhara CHETTRI, Daode YANG, Ke JIANG, Kai WANG, Liang ZHANG and Gernot VOGEL 2013. A New Species of the Genus Protobothrops (Squamata: Viperidae) from Southern Tibet, China and Sikkim, India. Asian Herpetological Research 4 (2): 109–115 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • YANG, JIAN-HUAN; NIKOLAI L. ORLOV & YING-YONG WANG 2011. A new species of pitviper of the genus Protobothrops from China (Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2936: 59–68 - get paper here
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