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Psammodromus edwarsianus (DUGÈS, 1829)

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Higher TaxaLacertidae (Gallotiinae), Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: East Iberian Psammodromus
G: Ostiberischer Sandläufer 
SynonymLacerta edwarsiana DUGÈS 1829: 339
Psammodromus Edwardsii — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 253
Lacerta Edwardsii — ZANG 1903
Psammodromus hispanicus edwardsianus — MERTENS 1925
Psammodromus hispanicus edwardsianus — BRUEKERS 2005
Psammodromus edwardsianus — FITZE et al. 2012
Psammodromus edwarsianus — CROCHET 2015
Psammodromus edwarsianus — KWET & TRAPP 2014
Psammodromus edwarsianus — SPEYBROECK et al. 2020 
DistributionE Spain, S France

Type locality: “South of France”; “bas Languedoc” [= lowland parts of the current Languedoc region] fide CROCHET 2015.  
Reproductionoviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: unlocated (not in MNHN fide Guibé 1954, as stated by Duges 1829). 
CommentSubspecies: SINDACO & JEREMCENKO 2008 state that edwardsianus is not accepted by any authors (!?). FITZE et al. 2012 revalidated P. h. edwardsianus and suggested to elevate it to full species status.

P. hispanicus hispanicus (Fitzinger 1826) and P. hispanicus edwardsianus (Dugès 1829) can be easily distinguished by the absence or presence of a supralabial scale below the subocular scale, respectively (Boulenger 1921, Mertens 1925, Pérez-Mellado 1998). P. hispanicus can be distinguished from P. algirus by the smaller body size, a shorter tail length that rarely exceeds 2 x SVL, absence of pterygoid teeth, presence of a gular fold and distinct collar scales, and pres- ence of two central ventral rows of clearly narrower scales compared to scales of adjoining rows. P. microdactylus can be distinguished from the other species by the absence of a gular fold. In 40 % of P. microdactylus kind of a collar could be detected, while a collar was present in 100% of the other species (Table 1 in FITZE et al. 2012). The only character that allows distinguishing between P. blanci and P. microdactylus (at least in old museum specimens) is the presence/absence of the diffuse gular fold. However, there are specimens that show intermediate characters. 
EtymologyNamed after the origin of the species.

Psammodromus edwarsianus has been named after H. Milne Edwards. Note, however, that the original spelling “Lacerta Edwarsiana” can be found four times in the description (three times in the text, once in the table) hence this spelling is not an incorrect original spelling and Article 32.5 of the Code (ICZN 1999) does not apply (CROCHET 2015). 
  • Bruekers, Jaco 2005. Waarnemigen aan de Spaanse Zandloper in de Provence, Zuid -Frankrijk. Lacerta 63 (2): 66-68 - get paper here
  • Dugès, A. 1829. Mémoire sur les espèces indigènes du genre Lacerta. Annales des Sciences naturelles, 16: 337–491 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Fitze, Patrick S; Virginia Gonzalez-Jimena, Luis M San-Jose, Diego San Mauro, Pedro Aragón, Teresa Suarez and Rafael Zardoya 2011. Integrative analyses of speciation and divergence in Psammodromus hispanicus (Squamata: Lacertidae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 11:347 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel & Benny Trapp 2014. Liste der Reptilien Europas. Draco 15 (60): 72-79 - get paper here
  • Mendes, Joana; D. James Harris, Salvador Carranza and Daniele Salvi 2017. Biogeographical crossroad across the Pillars of Hercules: Evolutionary history of Psammodromus lizards in space and time. Journal of Biogeography, DOI: 10.1111/jbi.13100 - get paper here
  • Mertens, Robert 1925. Amphibien und Reptilien aus dem nördlichen und östlichen Spanien, gesammelt von Dr. F. Haas. Abhandlungen der Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden Gesellschaft 39 (1): 27-129
  • Molina, C., Tamar, K., de la Vega, J. P. G., Burriel-Carranza, B., Fernandez-Guiberteau, D. and Carranza, S. 2020. New records on the distribution of the Spanish sand racer species (Squamata, Psammodromus) in Spain, Iberian Peninsula. Basic and Applied Herpetology 34: - get paper here
  • Speybroeck, Jeroen; Wouter Beukema, Christophe Dufresnes, Uwe Fritz, Daniel Jablonski, Petros Lymberakis, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Edoardo Razzetti, Melita Vamberger, Miguel Vences, Judit Vörös0, Pierre-André Crochet 2020. Species list of the European herpetofauna – 2020 update by the Taxonomic Committee of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica.. Amphibia-Reptilia 41: 139-189 - get paper here
  • Zang, R. 1903. Die Stimme der deutschen Lacerten. Zool. Anz. 26: 421-422 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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