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Psammodromus hispanicus FITZINGER, 1826

IUCN Red List - Psammodromus hispanicus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae (Gallotiinae), Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesE: Spanish Psammodromus
G: Spanischer Sandläufer, Iberischer Sandläufer
D: Spaanse Zandloper 
SynonymPsammodromus hispanicus FITZINGER 1826: 22
Psammodromus hispanicus hispanicus — MERTENS 1925
Psammodromus hispanicus — MALKMUS 1982: 277
Psammodromus hispanicus — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Psammodromus hispanicus — FITZE et al. 2012
Psammodromus hispanicus — LIVIGNI 2013: 290 
DistributionC Spain; Terra typica restricta: south of Spain

Neotype locality: Perales de Tajuña, Madrid, (Spain) Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
TypesNeotype: MNCN-CSIC, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain (MNCN/ ADN 41745), designated by FITZE et al. 2012. 
CommentSubspecies: SINDACO & JEREMCENKO 2008 state that edwardsianus is not accepted by any authors (!?). Nevertheless, FITZE et al. 2012 revalidated P. h. edwardsianus and suggested to elevate it to full species status, a decision followed by several subsequent authors.

Distribution: not in Portugal (P. Fitze, pers. comm.).

P. hispanicus hispanicus (Fitzinger 1826) and P. hispanicus edwardsianus (Dugès 1829) can be easily distinguished by the absence or presence of a supralabial scale below the subocular scale, respectively (Boulenger 1921, Mertens 1925, Pérez-Mellado 1998). P. hispanicus can be distinguished from P. algirus by the smaller body size, a shorter tail length that rarely exceeds 2 x SVL, absence of pterygoid teeth, presence of a gular fold and distinct collar scales, and pres- ence of two central ventral rows of clearly narrower scales compared to scales of adjoining rows. P. microdactylus can be distinguished from the other species by the absence of a gular fold. In 40 % of P. microdactylus kind of a collar could be detected, while a collar was present in 100% of the other species (Table 1 in FITZE et al. 2012). The only character that allows distinguishing between P. blanci and P. microdactylus (at least in old museum specimens) is the presence/absence of the diffuse gular fold. However, there are specimens that show intermediate characters.

Type species: Psammodromus hispanicus FITZINGER 1826: 22 is the type species of the genus Psammodromus FITZINGER 1826.

Diagnosis (genus): see Arnold 1973: 347. 
EtymologyNamed after the origin of the species.

Psammodromus edwarsianus has been named after H. Milne Edwards. Note, however, that the original spelling “Lacerta Edwarsiana” can be found four times in the description (three times in the text, once in the table) hence this spelling is not an incorrect original spelling and Article 32.5 of the Code (ICZN 1999) does not apply (CROCHET 2015). 
  • Bruekers, Jaco 2005. Waarnemigen aan de Spaanse Zandloper in de Provence, Zuid -Frankrijk. Lacerta 63 (2): 66-68 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol.5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Engelmann,W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • Fitze, Patrick S.; Gonzalez-Jimena, V.; San-José, L.M.; San Mauro, D. & Zardoya, R. 2012. A new species of sand racer, Psammodromus (Squamata: Lacertidae), from the Western Iberian Peninsula. Zootaxa 3205: 41–52 - get paper here
  • Fitze, Patrick S; Virginia Gonzalez-Jimena, Luis M San-Jose, Diego San Mauro, Pedro Aragón, Teresa Suarez and Rafael Zardoya 2011. Integrative analyses of speciation and divergence in Psammodromus hispanicus (Squamata: Lacertidae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 11:347 - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1826. Neue Classification der Reptilien nach ihren natürlichen Verwandtschaften nebst einer Verwandschafts-Tafel und einem Verzeichnisse der Reptilien-Sammlung des K. K. Zoologischen Museums zu Wien. J. G. Heubner, Wien, 66 pp. - get paper here
  • GARCÍA-DÍEZ, TERESA; JOSÉ E. GONZÁLEZ-FERNÁNDEZ 2013. The reptile type specimens preserved in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) of Madrid, Spain. Zootaxa 3619 (1): 046–058 - get paper here
  • Glandt, Dieter;Schlüpmann, Martin;Thiesmeier, Burkhard 1998. Herpetologische Beobachtungen in der Algarve, Südportugal. Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie 5: 181-208 - get paper here
  • in den Bosch H A J 1986. Zu Fortpflanzung und sozialem Verhalten von Psammodromus hispanicus FITZINGER, 1826, nebst einigen Bemerkungen zu Psammodromus algirus (LINNAEUS 1758). Salamandra 22 (2/3): 113-125
  • Kwet, A. 2010. Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 252 pp.
  • Kwet, Axel & Benny Trapp 2014. Liste der Reptilien Europas. Draco 15 (60): 72-79 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel & Benny Trapp 2014. Reptilien in Europa – eine aktuelle Übersicht. Draco 15 (60): 6-25 - get paper here
  • LiVigni, F. (ed.) 2013. A Life for Reptiles and Amphibians, Volume 1. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 495 pp. - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R. 1982. Beitrag zur Verbreitung der Amphibien und Reptilien in Portugal. Salamandra 18 (3-4): 218-299.
  • Malkmus, R. 1983. Nachtrag zur Verbreitung der Amphibien und Reptilien Portugals. Salamandra 19 (1/2): 71-83
  • Malkmus, R. 1995. Die Amphibien und Reptilien Portugals, Madeiras und der Azoren. Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei, Bd. 621. Westarp Wissenschaften (Magdeburg)/Spektrum Akademischer Verlag (Heidelberg)
  • Malkmus, Rudolf 2003. Daten zur Winteraktivität portugesischer Echsen (Sauria). Die Eidechse 14 (2)
  • Malkmus,R. 1989. Einige Neufunde zur Herpetofauna am portugiesischen Oberdouro. Salamandra 25 (2): 125-127
  • Patterson, J. W.;Davies, P. M. C. 1977. Notes on the herpetology of the Costa Blanca in spring [Tarentola mauritanica; Podarcis hispanica; Lacerta lepida; Psammodromus algirus; Psammodromus hispanicus; Chalcides bedriagai; Malpolon monspessulanus; natrix maura]. British Journal of Herpetology 5 (9): 685-686
  • Salvador, A. 1981. Psammodromus hispanicus - Iberischer Sandläufer. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Wiesbaden, pp. 492-502
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. 1975. Europaische Amphibien und Reptilien. Belser Verlag, Stuttgart 212 pp.
  • Zang, R. 1903. Die Stimme der deutschen Lacerten. Zool. Anz. 26: 421-422 - get paper here
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