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Psammodromus hispanicus FITZINGER, 1826

IUCN Red List - Psammodromus hispanicus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLacertidae (Gallotiinae), Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Spanish Psammodromus
G: Spanischer Sandläufer, Iberischer Sandläufer
D: Spaanse Zandloper 
SynonymPsammodromus hispanicus FITZINGER 1826: 22
Psammodromus hispanicus hispanicus — MERTENS 1925
Psammodromus hispanicus — MALKMUS 1982: 277
Psammodromus hispanicus — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Psammodromus hispanicus — FITZE et al. 2012
Psammodromus hispanicus — LIVIGNI 2013: 290
Psammodromus hispanicus — SPEYBROECK et al. 2020 
DistributionC Spain; Terra typica restricta: south of Spain

Type locality: restricted to South of Spain (MERTENS & MÜLLER 1940)
Neotype locality: Perales de Tajuña, Madrid, (Spain)  
TypesNeotype: MNCN-CSIC, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain (MNCN/ ADN 41745), designated by FITZE et al. 2012. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): see Arnold 1973: 347. 
CommentSubspecies: SINDACO & JEREMCENKO 2008 state that edwardsianus is not accepted by any authors (!?). Nevertheless, FITZE et al. 2012 revalidated P. h. edwardsianus and suggested to elevate it to full species status, a decision followed by several subsequent authors.

Distribution: not in Portugal (P. Fitze, pers. comm.).

P. hispanicus hispanicus (Fitzinger 1826) and P. hispanicus edwardsianus (Dugès 1829) can be easily distinguished by the absence or presence of a supralabial scale below the subocular scale, respectively (Boulenger 1921, Mertens 1925, Pérez-Mellado 1998). P. hispanicus can be distinguished from P. algirus by the smaller body size, a shorter tail length that rarely exceeds 2 x SVL, absence of pterygoid teeth, presence of a gular fold and distinct collar scales, and pres- ence of two central ventral rows of clearly narrower scales compared to scales of adjoining rows. P. microdactylus can be distinguished from the other species by the absence of a gular fold. In 40 % of P. microdactylus kind of a collar could be detected, while a collar was present in 100% of the other species (Table 1 in FITZE et al. 2012). The only character that allows distinguishing between P. blanci and P. microdactylus (at least in old museum specimens) is the presence/absence of the diffuse gular fold. However, there are specimens that show intermediate characters.

Type species: Psammodromus hispanicus FITZINGER 1826: 22 is the type species of the genus Psammodromus FITZINGER 1826. 
EtymologyNamed after the origin of the species in Spain.

Psammodromus edwarsianus has been named after H. Milne Edwards. Note, however, that the original spelling “Lacerta Edwarsiana” can be found four times in the description (three times in the text, once in the table) hence this spelling is not an incorrect original spelling and Article 32.5 of the Code (ICZN 1999) does not apply (CROCHET 2015).

The genus is named after Greek ψαμμο, "sand" + dromus, meaning "a runner." 
  • Boettger, O. 1879. Amphibien aus Südportugal. Z. ges. Naturwiss. 52: 497-534 - get paper here
  • Bosch, H A J in den 1986. Zu Fortpflanzung und sozialem Verhalten von Psammodromus hispanicus FITZINGER, 1826, nebst einigen Bemerkungen zu Psammodromus algirus (LINNAEUS 1758). Salamandra 22 (2-3): 113-125 - get paper here
  • Bruekers, Jaco 2005. Waarnemigen aan de Spaanse Zandloper in de Provence, Zuid -Frankrijk. Lacerta 63 (2): 66-68 - get paper here
  • Carretero, M.A. & G.A. Llorente 1991. Reproducción de Psammodromus hispanicus en una arenal costero del nordeste ibérico Amphibia-Reptilia, 12(4): 395-408. - get paper here
  • CASTRO-EXPÓSITO, ARANCHA DE; ENRIQUE GARCÍA-MUÑOZ & FRANCISCO GUERRERO. 2021. Reptile diversity in a Mediterranean wetlands landscape (Alto Guadalquivir region, southeastern Spain): are they affected by human impacts? Acta Herpetologica 16(1): 27–36. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Engelmann, W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • Fitze, Patrick S.; Gonzalez-Jimena, V.; San-José, L.M.; San Mauro, D. & Zardoya, R. 2012. A new species of sand racer, Psammodromus (Squamata: Lacertidae), from the Western Iberian Peninsula. Zootaxa 3205: 41–52 - get paper here
  • Fitze, Patrick S; Virginia Gonzalez-Jimena, Luis M San-Jose, Diego San Mauro, Pedro Aragón, Teresa Suarez and Rafael Zardoya 2011. Integrative analyses of speciation and divergence in Psammodromus hispanicus (Squamata: Lacertidae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 11:347 - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1826. Neue Classification der Reptilien nach ihren natürlichen Verwandtschaften nebst einer Verwandschafts-Tafel und einem Verzeichnisse der Reptilien-Sammlung des K. K. Zoologischen Museums zu Wien. J. G. Heubner, Wien, 66 pp. - get paper here
  • GARCÍA-DÍEZ, TERESA; JOSÉ E. GONZÁLEZ-FERNÁNDEZ 2013. The reptile type specimens preserved in the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (CSIC) of Madrid, Spain. Zootaxa 3619 (1): 046–058 - get paper here
  • Glandt, Dieter;Schlüpmann, Martin;Thiesmeier, Burkhard 1998. Herpetologische Beobachtungen in der Algarve, Südportugal. Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie 5: 181-208 - get paper here
  • GUERRERO-CASADO, JOSÉ; ANTONIO CARPIO, MARTA CANÓS-BURGUETE, MIZAR TORRIJO-SALESA & FRANCISCO S. TORTOSA. 2022. The modernization of traditional vineyards into intensive trellis systems reduces the species richness and abundance of reptiles. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 20(2): e0302. - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2010. Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 252 pp.
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  • Kwet, Axel & Benny Trapp 2014. Reptilien in Europa – eine aktuelle Übersicht. Draco 15 (60): 6-25 - get paper here
  • LiVigni, F. (ed.) 2013. A Life for Reptiles and Amphibians, Volume 1. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 495 pp. - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R. 1982. Beitrag zur Verbreitung der Amphibien und Reptilien in Portugal. Salamandra 18 (3-4): 218-299 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R. 1983. Nachtrag zur Verbreitung der Amphibien und Reptilien Portugals. Salamandra 19 (1-2): 71-83 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R. 1995. Die Amphibien und Reptilien Portugals, Madeiras und der Azoren. Die Neue Brehm-Bücherei, Bd. 621. Westarp Wissenschaften (Magdeburg)/Spektrum Akademischer Verlag (Heidelberg)
  • Malkmus, Rudolf 2003. Daten zur Winteraktivität portugesischer Echsen (Sauria). Die Eidechse 14 (2) - get paper here
  • Malkmus,R. 1989. Einige Neufunde zur Herpetofauna am portugiesischen Oberdouro. Salamandra 25 (2): 125-127 - get paper here
  • Molina, C., Tamar, K., de la Vega, J. P. G., Burriel-Carranza, B., Fernandez-Guiberteau, D. and Carranza, S. 2020. New records on the distribution of the Spanish sand racer species (Squamata, Psammodromus) in Spain, Iberian Peninsula. Basic and Applied Herpetology 34: - get paper here
  • Patterson, J. W.;Davies, P. M. C. 1977. Notes on the herpetology of the Costa Blanca in spring [Tarentola mauritanica; Podarcis hispanica; Lacerta lepida; Psammodromus algirus; Psammodromus hispanicus; Chalcides bedriagai; Malpolon monspessulanus; natrix maura]. British Journal of Herpetology 5 (9): 685-686
  • Salvador, A. 1981. Psammodromus hispanicus - Iberischer Sandläufer. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Wiesbaden, pp. 492-502
  • Salvador, A. 1981. Psammodromus hispanicus (Linaeus 1766) - Iberischer Sandläufer. In: Böhme,W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band I., Echsen I. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Wiesbaden, pp. 492-502
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  • Speybroeck, Jeroen; Wouter Beukema, Christophe Dufresnes, Uwe Fritz, Daniel Jablonski, Petros Lymberakis, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Edoardo Razzetti, Melita Vamberger, Miguel Vences, Judit Vörös0, Pierre-André Crochet 2020. Species list of the European herpetofauna – 2020 update by the Taxonomic Committee of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica.. Amphibia-Reptilia 41: 139-189 - get paper here
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  • Zang, R. 1903. Die Stimme der deutschen Lacerten. Zool. Anz. 26: 421-422 - get paper here
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