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Psammophis condanarus (MERREM, 1820)

IUCN Red List - Psammophis condanarus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaLamprophiidae, Psammophiinae, Serpentes (snakes) 
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Sand Snake
G: Sandrennnatter 
SynonymColuber condanarus MERREM 1820: 107
Phayrea Isabellina THEOBALD 1868 (fide BOULENGER 1890)
Psammophis condanarus — BOULENGER 1890
Leptophis bellii JERDON 1853 (fide SMITH 1943)
Psammophis indicus BEDDOME 1863 (fide SMITH 1943)
Psammophis condonarus [sic] — JERDON 1865: 417
Psammophis condanarus — FISCHER 1881: 228
Mike elegantissimus WERNER 1924
Psammophis condanarus — SMITH 1943: 364
Psammophis condernarus — CHAN-ARD et al. 1999: 182 (in error)
Taphrometopon condanarum — WALLACH et al. 2014: 694 
DistributionN India (incl. Himachal Pradesh, Punjab [Dino Aulakh, pers. comm.]), Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar

Type locality: Ganjam District Map legend:
TDWG region - Region according to the TDWG standard, not a precise distribution map.

NOTE: TDWG regions are generated automatically from the text in the distribution field and not in every cases it works well. We are working on it.
 
Typesholotype: ZSI 7600 (DAS et al. 1998)
Lectotype: Russell 1796, plate 27 
CommentSynonymy partly after Wallach 1988, Amphibia-Reptilia 9: 62.

PAUWELS et al. (2003) state that P. c. condanarus and P. s. indochinensis can be distinguished by their microdermatoglyphic patterns which is said to be “echinate” in condanarus but “canaliculate” in indochinensis (based on F. Brandstätter’s PhD thesis of 1995).

Distribution: DOWLING & JENNER 1988 list only one species of Psammophis from Myanmar, namely Psammophis condanarus.

Subspecies: Psammophis condanarus indochinensis SMITH 1943 is treated here as valid species. 
References
  • Anderson, J. 1871. On some Indian reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1871: 149-211 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Brandstätter, Frank; Redl, Michela 1997. On the etymology of Asian snakes of the genus Psammophis (Serpentes: Colubridae). Hamadryad 22 (1): 50-53 - get paper here
  • Chan-ard,T.; Grossmann,W.; Gumprecht,A. & Schulz,K. D. 1999. Amphibians and reptiles of peninsular Malaysia and Thailand - an illustrated checklist [bilingual English and German]. Bushmaster Publications, Würselen, Gemany, 240 pp. [book review in Russ. J Herp. 7: 87] - get paper here
  • Cottone, Amanda M. and Aaron M. Bauer 2009. Notes on sexual size dimorphism and reproduction in the Asian Sand Snake, Psammophis condanarus (Psammophiidae). Hamadryad 34 (1): 182-185
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1881. Herpetologische Bemerkungen vorzugsweise über Stücke des Naturhistorischen Museums in Bremen. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Bremen, 7: 225-238 [Nov. 1881]
  • Hughes, B. 1999. Critical review of a revision of Psammophis (Linnaeus 1758) (Serpentes, Reptilia) by Frank Brandstätter. African Journal of Herpetology 48 (1-2): 63-70 - get paper here
  • Jerdon,T.C. 1865. Remarks on observations contained in Dr. Günther’s work on the reptiles of British India. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) 15: 416-418 - get paper here
  • Kästle , W., Rai, K. & Schleich, H.H. 2013. FIELD GUIDE to Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. ARCO-Nepal e.V., 625 pp. - get paper here
  • Merrem, B. 1820. Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien I (Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum). J. C. Kriegeri, Marburg, 191 pp.
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P.; Chimsunchart, C. & Thirakhupt, K. 2003. Reptiles of Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand: a list of species, with natural history notes, and a discussion on the biogeography at the Isthmus of Kra. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3 (1): 23-53 - get paper here
  • Russell,P. 1796. An account of Indian serpents collected on the coast of Coromandel, containing descriptions and drawings of each species, together with experiments and remarks on their several poisons. George Nicol, London, 90 pp.
  • Saikia, U.; Sharma, D.K. & Sharma, R.M. 2007. Checklist of the Reptilian fauna of Himachal Pradesh, India. Reptile Rap (8): 6-9 - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Stoliczka, F. 1870. Observations on some Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 39: 134-228. - get paper here
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • Theobald, WILLIAM 1868. Catalogue of reptiles in the Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. J. Asiatic Soc. Bengal, Calcutta, 37 (extra number 146): (2), vi, 7-88 - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1907. Notes on Snakes collected in Fyzabad. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 18: 101-129 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wallach,V. 1988. Status and redescription of the genus Padangia Werner, with comparative visceral data on Collorhabdium Smedley and other genera (Serpentes: Colubridae). Amphibia-Reptilia 9: 61-76 - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1924. Neue oder wenig bekannte Schlangen aus dem Naturhistorischen Staatsmuseum in Wien. l. Teil. Sitzungsb. Ber. Akad. Wiss., Wien, Abt. l, 133: 29 - 56
  • ZIEGLER, THOMAS; RALF HENDRIX, VU NGOC THANH, MARTINA VOGT, BERNHARD FORSTER & DANG NGOC KIEN 2007. The diversity of a snake community in a karst forest ecosystem in the central Truong Son, Vietnam, with an identification key. Zootaxa 1493: 1-40 - get paper here
  • Zug, G.R. & Mitchell, J.C. 1995. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Royal Chitwan National Park, Nepal. Asiatic Herpetological Research 6: 172-180 - get paper here
 
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