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Psammophylax rhombeatus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaLamprophiidae, Psammophiinae, Colubroidea, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes) 
Common NamesE: Spotted Grass Snake, Spotted Skaapsteker, Rhombic Skaapsteker
G: Gefleckter Shaapsteker, Rhomben-Skaapsteker 
Synonym?Coluber rhombeatus LINNAEUS 1758: 220
? Dipsas rhombeatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1854: 1154
Psammophylax ocellatus BOCAGE 1873 (fide FITZSIMONS 1966)
Psammophylax rhombeatus — FISCHER 1881: 228
Psammophis longementalis ROUX 1907: 736
Psammophylax rhombeatus ocellatus — BROADLEY 1977
Psammophylax rhombeatus rhombeatus — BOYCOTT 1992
Psammophylax rhombeatus — MATTISON 1995: 225
Psammophylax rhombeatus — MATTISON 2007: 249
Psammophylax rhombeatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 593
Psammophylax rhombeatus rhombeatus — BATES et al. 2014: 381
Psammophylax rhombeatus ocellatus — MARQUES et al. 2018
Psammophylax ocellatus — BRANCH et al. 2019: 324 
DistributionS Namibia, Republic of South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, SW Angola

Type locality: "in Indiis," (in error). Corrected to South Africa by FitzSimons, 1962: 210. Restricted to southwestern Cape of Good Hope Province, South Africa by Broadley, 1977a: 17.

ocellatus: Angola; Type locality: “l’intérieur de Mossamedes (Gambos)” [= Gambos], Huíla Province, Angola.  
TypesSyntypes: NRM (= NHRM) (orig. in MAFR). 600 mm and 405 mm (SVL) specimens.
Holotype: MB (Museu Bocage) specimen number unknown (collector J.A. d’Anchieta), specimen lost fide Broadley (1977c) [ocellatus] 
CommentType species: Coluber rhombeatus LINNAEUS 1758: 220 is the type species of the genus Psammophylax FITZINGER 1843.

Subspecies: BRANCH et al. 2019 cites a Zootaxa paper in press that revalidates Psammophylax rhombeatus ocellatus as valid species but this apparently has not been published. 
  • Bates, M. F. 1985. Notes on Egg Clutches in Lamprophis inornatus and Psammophylax rhombeatus rhombeatus. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa (31): 21-22 - get paper here
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Bauer, A.M., and Branch, W.R. 2003. The herpetofauna of the Richtersveld National Park, Northern Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. Herpetological Natural History 8: 111-160 [2001]
  • Bauer, Aaron M.; Branch, William R. & Haacke, Wulf D. 1993. The herpetofauna of the Kamanjab area and adjacent Damaraland, Namibia. Madoqua (Windhoek) 18 (2): 117-145.
  • Bocage,J.V.B. 1873. Melanges erpetologiques. II. Sur quelques reptiles et batraciens nouveaux, rares ou peu connus d‘Afrique occidentale. Jorn. Acad. Sci. Lisboa 4: 209-227
  • Boycott, R.C. 1992. An Annotated Checklist of the Amphibians and Reptiles of Swaziland. The Conservation Trust of Swaziland - get paper here
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Broadley, D.G. 1977. A revision of the African Snakes of the Genus Psammophylax Fitzinger (Colubridae). Occ. Pap. natl. Mus. Rhod. 1976 B6 (1): 1-44.
  • Conradie, Werner; Brian Reeves , Neil Brown, & Jan A. Venter 2016. Herpetofauna of the Oviston, Commando Drift and Tsolwana nature reserves in the arid interior of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Indago 32: 81-98 - get paper here
  • COTTONE, A.M. & BAUER, A.M. 2008. Psammophylax r. rhombeatus (Linnaeus, 1754). Behaviour. African Herp News (44): 20 - get paper here
  • COTTONE, A.M. & BAUER, A.M. 2008. Psammophy/ax rhombeatus (Linnaeus, 1754) and Psammophis spp. Tail autotomy. African Herp News (44): 18 - get paper here
  • Cottone, Amanda M. and Aaron M. Bauer 2013. The Vernal Spatial Ecology and Mating Behaviors of the Rhombic Skaapsteker, Psammophylax rhombeatus rhombeatus (Serpentes: Psammophiidae), from the Western Cape, South Africa. Copeia Jul 2013, Vol. 2013, No. 2: 194-200. - get paper here
  • Creighton, D.; Haagner, G. 1986. Life History Note: Psammophylax rhombeatus rhombeatus: Reproduction. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa (32): 35-35 - get paper here
  • Daan, S. & Hillenius,D. 1966. Catalogue of the type specimens of amphibians and reptiles in the Zoological Museum, Amsterdam. Beaufortia 13: 117-144
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Fischer, J. G. 1881. Herpetologische Bemerkungen vorzugsweise über Stücke des Naturhistorischen Museums in Bremen. Abhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Bremen, 7: 225-238 [Nov. 1881]
  • Hall, R.J.; Haagner, G.V.; Branch, W.R. 1994. Life History Notes - Psammophylax rhombeatus rhombeatus. African Herp News (21): 20-21 - get paper here
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; W.R. Branch 2013. Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist. Journal of Arid Environments 93: 94–115 - get paper here
  • Knox, Andrew and Kate Jackson 2010. Ecological and phylogenetic influences on maxillary dentition in snakes. Phyllomedusa 9 (2): 121-131 - get paper here
  • Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ. 10th Edition: 824 pp. - get paper here
  • Marques, Mariana P.; Luis M. P. Ceríaco , David C. Blackburn , and Aaron M. Bauer 2018. Diversity and Distribution of the Amphibians and Terrestrial Reptiles of Angola -- Atlas of Historical and Bibliographic Records (1840–2017). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (Ser. 4) 65: 1-501 (Supplement II)
  • MASTERSON, G.F. & MACKAY, D. 2008. Psammophylax r. rhombeatus (Linnaeus, 1754). Reproduction. African Herp News (44): 16 - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 1995. The Encyclopedia of Snakes. New York: Facts on File, 256 pp.
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • Roux,J. 1907. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Fauna von Süd-Afrika. VIII. Ophidia. Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Syst., Geogr. Biol. Tiere (Jena), 25: 732-741 - get paper here
  • Steehouder, A.M. 1987. Some experiences with the Spotted skaapsteker Psammophylax rhombeatus. Litteratura Serpentium 7 (4): 175-184 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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