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Pseudagkistrodon rudis (BOULENGER, 1906)

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesPseudagkistrodon rudis multiprefrontalis ZHAO & JIANG 1981
Pseudagkistrodon rudis rudis (BOULENGER 1906) 
Common NamesE: Red Keelback, False Habu
Chinese: 颈棱蛇 
SynonymMacropisthodon rudis BOULENGER 1906
Pseudagkistrodon carinatus VAN DENBURGH 1909
Macropisthodon carinatus — STEJNEGER 1910
Macropisthodon rudis — MEHRTENS 1987: 195
Macropisthodon rudis — MATTISON 2007: 129
Pseudagkistrodon rudis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 594
Pseudoagkistrodon rudis — TAKEUCHI et al. 2018 (in error)

Pseudagkistrodon rudis multiprefrontalis (ZHAO & JIANG 1981)
Macropisthodon rudis multiprefrontalis ZHAO & JIANG 1981
Macropisthodon rudis multiprefrontalis — GUO et al. 1999
Pseudagkistrodon rudis multiprefrontalis — TAKEUCHI et al. 2018 (by implication)

Pseudagkistrodon rudis rudis (BOULENGER 1906)
Natrix namiei OSHIMA 1910: 189
Macropisthodon rudis rudis — MELL 1931 [1929]
Macropisthodon rudis rudis — ZHAO & JIANG 1981
Macropisthodon rudis var. melanogaster VOGT 1922
Pseudagkistrodon rudis rudis — TAKEUCHI et al. 2018 (by implication) 
S China (Fujian, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Hunan, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Guangdong)

Type locality: Tongchuan, Yuman, China

multiprefrontalis: China (Sichuan); Type locality: Xichang, Sichuan Prov.; 2650 m elevation;  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1940.1.13.92, CAS 18003
Holotype: ZMB 38069
Holotype: Cib 6515143, male, Coll. C. C. Liu; 6. 8, 1965 [multiprefrontalis]
Holotype: CAS 18003 [Pseudagkistrodon carinatus] 
CommentBehavior: harmless, but aggressive

Type species: Macropisthodon rudis BOULENGER 1906 is the type species of the genus Pseudagkistrodon VAN DENBURGH 1909.

Comparisons (genera): Ren et al. 2019: 121 (Table 6) provide a morphological comparison of natricine genera (Opisthotropis, Paratapinophis, Isanophis, Trimerodytes balteatus, Hebius annamensis, Trachischium fuscum/guentheri, Rhabdops bicolor, Atretium yunnanensis, Pseudagkistrodon rudis multiprefrontalis). 
  • Boulenger, GEORGE A. 1906. Descriptions of new reptiles from Yunnan. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (7) 17 (102): 567-568. - get paper here
  • Guo, P., F. J. Zhang, and Y. Y. Chen. 1999. Catalogue of type specimens of reptiles in the Herpetological Collections of Chengdu Institute of Biology,the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Asiatic Herpetological Research 8: 43~47 - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • Mehrtens, J.M. 1987. Living snakes of the world in color. Sterling Publ. Co., hic., New York, NY: 480 pp.
  • Mell,R. 1931. List of Chinese snakes. Lingnan Sci. Jour., Canton, 8 [1929]: 199-219.
  • Oshima, MASAMITSU. 1910. An annotated list of Formosan snakes, with descriptions of four new species and one new subspecies. Annot. Zool. Japon., Tokyo, 7 (3): 185-207.
  • REN, Jinlong; Kai WANG, Peng GUO, Yingyong WANG, Tao Thien NGUYEN, and Jiatang LI 2019. On the Generic Taxonomy of Opisthotropis balteata (Cope, 1895) (Squamata: Colubridae: Natricinae): Taxonomic Revision of Two Natricine Genera. Asian Herpetological Research 10 (2): 105–128; DOI: 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.180091 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, L. 1910. The batrachians and reptiles of Formosa. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 38: 91-114 - get paper here
  • TILLACK, F. 2005. Macropisthodon rudis rudis BOULENGER. Sauria 27 (2): 1-2 - get paper here
  • Van DENBURGH, JOHN 1909. New and previously unrecorded species of reptiles and amphibians from the island of Formosa. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (4) 3 (3): 49-56. - get paper here
  • Vogt, Theodor 1922. Zur Reptilien- und Amphibienfauna Südchinas. Archiv für Naturgeschichte 88A (10): 135-146 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wang K, Lyu ZT, Wang J, Qi S, Che J 2022. Updated Checklist and Zoogeographic Division of the Reptilian Fauna of Yunnan Province, China. Biodiversity Science 30 (4): 21326, 1–31 - get paper here
  • Wang, C. G. M. Z. X., Jia, S. Y. K. T. L., & Hu, C. Z. J. 2022. An updated species checklist of amphibians and reptiles in Fujian Province, China. Biodiversity Science, 22090 - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Zhao, E.M. 2006. The snakes of China [in Chinese]. Hefei, China, Anhui Sience & Technology Publ. House, Vol. I, 372 pp., Vol. II (color plates), 280 pp.
  • Zhao, ER-MI 1981. Studies on amphibians and reptiles of Mt. Gongga Shan, Sichuan, China. I. A new species and a new subspecies of snakes from Sichuan (in Chinese). Acta Herpetol. Sinica, Chengdu, [old ser.], 5 (7): 53-58
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
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