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Pseudoacontias menamainty ANDREONE & GREER, 2002

IUCN Red List - Pseudoacontias menamainty - Critically Endangered, CR

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Scincinae, Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymPseudoacontias menamainty ANDREONE & GREER 2002
Pseudoacontias menamainty — SCHMITZ et al. 2005
Pseudoacontias menamainty — LIVIGNI 2013: 269 
DistributionNE Madagascar

Type locality: collected at Berara Forest, Sahamalaza Peninsula, Analalava Fivondronana, Mahajanga Faritany (Majunga Province), 14°18.55'S,
47°54.92'E, elevation c. 170 m.  
Reproductionoviparous (phylogenetic imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: MRSN R1826 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of Pseudoacontias distinguished from the two other species in the genus, P. angelorum Nussbaum & Raxworthy, 1995 and P. madagascariensis Barboza du Bocage, 1889 (holotype and only known specimen destroyed), in the following combination of characters: frontal divided obliquely (possibly anomalous); nostril well into rostral scale (vs close to posterior edge); loreal slightly deeper than long (much longer than deep); supralabials five (six); infralabials four (five and six, respectively); front limb represented by a `button'-like scale (no trace and no reported trace, respectively); rear limb absent (short and paddle-like and no reported trace, respectively); longitudinal scale rows at mid-body 25 (34 and 32, respectively), and presacral vertebrae 67 (82 and unknown, respectively) (Andreone et al. 2002). 
CommentNo hindlimbs, forelimbs reduced to a button-like scale; no ear openings visible.

Only known from a single specimen.

Abundance: only known from the type locality (Meiri et al. 2017). This is one of the species called 'lost' and 'rediscovered' by Lindken et al. 2024. 
EtymologyThe specific name `menamainty' is a compound Malagasy word which is based on the words `mena' for `red' and `mainty' for `black' and refers to the red and black striped aspect of this skink in life. It is used here as a noun in apposition (`the red and black one'). The phonetic rendition is: “mai”na-”ma”inty (accented syllables in quotes). 
  • Andreone, F. & Greer, A.E. 2002. Malagasy scincid lizards: descriptions of nine new species, with notes on the morphology, reproduction and taxonomy of some previously described species (Reptilia, Squamata: Scincidae). Journal of Zoology 258, 139-181 - get paper here
  • Belluardo, F., Muñoz-Pajares, A. J., Miralles, A., Silvestro, D., Cocca, W., Ratsoavina, F. M., ... & Crottini, A. 2022. Slow and steady wins the race: Diversification rate is independent from body size and lifestyle in Malagasy skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Scincinae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 107635 - get paper here
  • Lindken T.; Anderson, C. V., Ariano-Sánchez, D., Barki, G., Biggs, C., Bowles, P., Chaitanya, R., Cronin, D. T., Jähnig, S. C., Jeschke, J. M., Kennerley, R. J., Lacher, T. E. Jr., Luedtke, J. A., Liu, C., Long, B., Mallon, D., Martin, G. M., Meiri, 2024. What factors influence the rediscovery of lost tetrapod species? Global Change Biology, 30: 1-18 - get paper here
  • LiVigni, F. (ed.) 2013. A Life for Reptiles and Amphibians, Volume 1. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 495 pp. - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Schmitz, A.; M.C. Brandley; P. Mausfeld; M. Vences; F. Glaw; R.A. Nussbaum and T.W. Reeder 2005. Opening the black box: phylogenetics and morphological evolution of the Malagasy fossorial lizards of the subfamily “Scincinae”. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34: 118–133 (published online 2004) - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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