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Pseudocalotes guttalineatus HARVEY, HAMIDY, KURNIAWAN, SHANEY & SMITH, 2014

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards) 
Common NamesDash-lined False Garden Lizard 
SynonymPseudocalotes guttalineatus HARVEY, HAMIDY, KURNIAWAN, SHANEY & SMITH 2014 
DistributionIndonesia (S Sumatra)

Type locality: montane forest above Ngarip, Lampung, Sumatra, Indonesia, 5.28°S, 104.56° E, 1391 m elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous. The right oviduct of UTA 60501 contained two large, oval-shaped eggs (dimensions 14.6 X 6.9 mm and 14.2 X 7.1 mm; clutch size of four) already with tough fibrous shells, but no grossly evident calcification of the shell. In addition, this specimen’s right ovary contained two relatively large, yellow (diameters 4.7 mm) and 5 small, cream-colored (diameters 1–1.5 mm) eggs. The right oviduct of UTA 60540 was empty and highly convoluted, but not distended, suggesting that the specimen had not recently ovoposited. Its ovary contained one large, yellow, ovoid (4.8 X 3.7 mm) egg, a smaller circular egg (diameter 2.7), and 7 small cream-colored eggs (0.7–1.5 mm). 
TypesHolotype: MZB 9796, an adult female, collected 10 June 2013 by field parties from BC, MZB, UB, and UTA.
Paratypes. Thirteen specimens (MZB 9652, 9765, 9792–9795, 9801, UTA 60536, 60540–60543, 60554) from the same mountain as the holotype, 1341–1521 m, collected 10–12 June 2013 by field parties from BC, MZB, UB, and UTA. Two specimens (UTA 60500–60501) from Maura Dua, Remanan Jaya, Gunung Pesagi (localy known as Masagi), Sumatera Selatan, Indonesia, 4.91°S, 104.13°E, 1574–1643 m, collected 17 June 2013 by field parties from BC, MZB, UB, and UTA. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A species of Pseudocalotes reaching at least 16 mm (95 mm SVL) and distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) discrete interparietal absent (2) canthals 5–7, usually six; () enlarged, heavily keeled to subpyramidal nuchal, posttemporal, posttympanic, and postrictal scales present; (4) gulars medium-sized with sharp transition to smaller scales on well-developed gular pouch; (5) antehumeral skin fold absent; (6) 6–7 enlarged, heavily keeled scales in dorsolateral series between limbs, extending onto neck as short row of closely spaced scales; (7) scales on lower flanks feebly keeled and homogenous (8) 45–55 scales around midbody (9) dorsal crest of projecting scales, extending to tail of male and midbody of females; (10) ventrals smaller than dorsals; (11) subdigital lamellae at base of Toe III modified: prominent preaxial keels pointed; postaxial keels absent or greatly reduced; (12) dorsum green with dorsolateral series of pale grayish blue, heavily keeled scales; (1) venter light green, without pale ventrolateral stripe between limbs; (14) gular region with grayish blue lines evident when gular pouch extended; (15) tongue and floor of mouth yellow-orange, throat black.

Size: 16 mm total length (95 mm SVL)

Comparisons. Pseudocalotes guttalineatus can be distinguished from other agamids on Sumatra by its clearly visible tympanum, enlarged row of scales below orbit bordering supralabials, absence of skin folds, broad separation of dorsal and nuchal crests, heterogenous dorsal squamation, tail about twice as long as SVL, keeled subdigital lamellae, dorsals larger than ventrals, absence of large spines in the nuchal and postorbital regions, relatively narrow head, yellow-orange buccal epithelium, black throat, and other characters of external morphology described in the differential diagnosis of Pseudocalotes (Hallermann & Böhme 2000, as expanded by Mahony 2010).

Pseudocalotes guttalineatus is most similar to P. cybelidermus with which it has been found in microsympatry. Unlike P. cybelidermus (characters in parentheses), P. guttalineatus lacks an interparietal (present) and has relatively small gulars numbering 2–1 (Fig. 4; relatively large gulars, 17–25) from the preaxial margin of the arm Of the 15 species of Pseudocalotes recognized before this study, only P. tympanistriga has been reported from Sumatra. Unlike P. tympanistriga (characters in parentheses), P. guttalineatus has a serrate dorsal crest in males extending onto the base of the tail (nuchal crest projecting, but dorsal crest of low, heavily keeled scales), a gap of 4–8 scales between the nuchal and dorsal crests (2– scales), flanks with six or seven enlarged keeled scales in a single dorsolateral row between limbs (four or five), much more developed preaxial than postaxial keels on subdigital lamellae at the base of the third toe (preaxial and postaxial keels equally developed), and yellow-orange tongue (cream).

Most other congeners appear to be restricted to high elevations and are unlikely to be discovered on Sumatra. Unlike the new species, Pseudocalotes austeniana, P. kakhienensis, and P. kingdonwardi have well-developed antehumeral folds and dorsals that are strongly heterogenous in size and shape. With 45–55 scales around midbody, P. guttalineatus has more scales around midbody than P. flavigula (Smith 1924; 7–40) and fewer scales around midbody than P. andamanensis (57–62), P. brevipes (Werner 1904; 65–80), P. khaonanensis Chan-ard et al. 2008 (72–75) P. microlepis (Boulenger 1888; 65–72), P. poilani (56–60), P. saravacensis Inger & Stuebing 1994 (68), and P. ziegleri Hallermann et al. 2010 (57–64). Unlike P. laurutensis Hallermann & McGuire 2001 (characters in parentheses), the new species has 5–7 canthals (four), a projecting dorsal crest (scales keeled but not projecting), a bright green dorsum with a dorsolateral row of contrasting pale spots (dorsum tan-yellow with slight greenish cast), and a light green gular pouch with grayish blue stripes in males (yellow central spot flanked by plum-colored patches). Unlike P. floweri (Boulenger 1912) the new species has a serrate dorsal crest (low, denticulate) relatively low subdigital keels at the base of Toe III (subdigital lamellae with blade-like lateral extensions), a dorsolateral series of enlarged, heavily keeled scales between the limbs (absent), and modified posttympanic and postrictal scales (absent). Unlike P. dringi Hallermann & Böhme 2000, P. guttalineatus has greatly reduced or absent postaxial keels at the base of Toe III (subdigital lamellae bicarinate at base of Toe III), a serrate dorsal crest of projecting scales (scales of dorsal crest not projecting, crest formed by keels of scales), and a gular pouch covered in green scales separated by pale grayish blue skin (gular sac with “an oval blue black ocellus enclosing a pinkish purple patch,” Hallermann & Böhme 2000: 200).

Sympatry: P. cybelidermus.

Although normally green in life, Pseudocalotes guttalineatus apparently can turn to various shades of brown, presumably in order to match its environment or temperament. 
CommentSize: 16 mm total length (95 mm SVL)

Sympatry: P. cybelidermus.

Although normally green in life, Pseudocalotes guttalineatus apparently can turn to various shades of brown, presumably in order to match its environment or temperament. 
EtymologyThe new name guttalineatus is an adjective derived from the Latin nouns gutta, meaning drop or spot, and lineatus, meaning lined. The new name refers to the dashed, bluish gray line on the neck and upper flanks of Pseudocalotes guttalineatus. 
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; AMIR HAMIDY, NIA KURNIAWAN, KYLE SHANEY & ERIC N. SMITH 2014. Three new species of Pseudocalotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from southern Sumatra, Indonesia. Zootaxa 3841 (2): 211–238 - get paper here
  • HARVEY, MICHAEL B.; KYLE SHANEY, AMIR HAMIDY, NIA KURNIAWAN, ERIC N. SMITH 2017. A new species of Pseudocalotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from the Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra with an Estimation of its phylogeny. Zootaxa 4276 (2): 215–232 - get paper here
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