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Pseudocerastes urarachnoides BOSTANCHI, ANDERSON, KAMI & PAPENFUSS, 2006

IUCN Red List - Pseudocerastes urarachnoides - Data Deficient, DD

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Iranian spider viper
G: Spinnenschwanzviper 
SynonymPseudocerastes urarachnoides BOSTANCHI, ANDERSON, KAMI & PAPENFUSS 2006
Pseudocerastes urarachnoides — GOWER et al. 2012: 84
Pseudocerastes urarachnoides — WALLACH et al. 2014: 600( 
DistributionIran (Ilam, Kermanshah, Khuzestan Provinces), ca. 200 m elevation; Iraq

Type locality: Iran: Ilam Province: 70 km SW Ilam [probably on road to Amirabad and Mehran]  
TypesHolotype: FMNH 170929, female, collected by Daniel R. Womochel and Anthony F. DeBlase, Second Street Expedition to Iran, 27 August 1968.
Paratype: ZMGU [male], 1300, Iran: Kermanshah Province: 25 km south of Qasr-e-Shirin on road to Gilan-e Gharb, open level area in agricultural region, ca. 200 meters elevation, collected by Hamid Bostanchi, May 15, 2001 at about 0800 hrs. 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS: A Pseudocerastes with a short tail (TL/T= 9.65), few pairs of subcaudals (15 in the known specimens), the distal pairs forming an oval knob-like structure; lateral dorsal caudal scales projected to form elongate "appendages" alongside terminal knob. Several rows of lateral dorsal scales are weakly keeled. 
EtymologyFrom the Greek: ura = tail; arachno= spider; ides= similar to. 
  • AL-SHEIKHLY, O.F., AL-BARAZENGY, A.N. & AL-HAIDERI, M.L. 2019. Erstnachweis der Iranischen Spinnenschwanzviper Pseudocerastes urarachnoides Bostanchi, Anderson, Kami & Papenfuss, 2006 (Serpentes: Viperidae) im Irak. Sauria 41 (3): 43-46 - get paper here
  • AL-SHEIKHLY, O.F., HABA, M. K., AL-RIKABI, H.O. & AL-HAIDERI, M.L. 2020. Neue Fundorte der Iranischen Spinnenschwanzviper Pseudocerastes urarachnoides (Serpentes: Viperidae) im Irak. Sauria 42 (3): 73-76 - get paper here
  • Anderson, Steve 2021. A Hopeful Monster? Academia Letters Article 4441 - get paper here
  • Bok, Bobby; Matthieu Berroneau, Masoud Yousefi, Joachim Nerz, Frank Deschandol, Maud Berroneau, Laura Tiemann 2017. Sympatry of Pseudocerastes persicus and P. urarachnoides in the western Zagros Mountains, Iran. Herpetology Notes 10: 323-325 - get paper here
  • Bostanchi, Hamid; Anderson, Steven C.; Kami, Hagi Gholi; Papenfuss, Theodore J. 2006. A new species of Pseudocerastes with elaborate tail ornamentation from Western Iran (Squamata: Viperidae). Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 57 (14):443-450. - get paper here
  • Fathinia B, Rastegar‐Pouyani N, Rastegar‐Pouyani E. 2018. Molecular phylogeny and historical biogeography of genera Eristicophis and Pseudocerastes (Ophidia, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 47: 673–685 - get paper here
  • Fathinia, Behzad and Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani 2010. On the Species of Pseudocerastes (Ophidia: Viperidae) in Iran. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (4): 275-279 - get paper here
  • Fathinia, Behzad; Dennis Rödder, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani, Mahboubeh Sadat Hosseinzadeh & Seyed Mahdi Kazemi 2020. The past, current and future habitat range of the Spider-tailed Viper, Pseudocerastes urarachnoides (Serpentes: Viperidae) in western Iran and eastern Iraq as revealed by habitat modelling. Zoology in the Middle East - get paper here
  • Fathinia, Behzad; Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani, Fatemeh Todehdehghan and Fathollah Amiri 2015. Avian deception using an elaborate caudal lure in Pseudocerastes urarachnoides (Serpentes: Viperidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 36 (3): 223 - 231 - get paper here
  • Fathinia, Behzad; Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani, Fatemeh Todehdehghan, Mahmood Mansouri 2017. Annual activity pattern of Pseudocerastes urarachnoides BOSTANCHI, ANDERSON, KAMI & PAPENFUSS, 2006, with notes on its natural history (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae). Herpetozoa 29 (3/4): 135 - 142 - get paper here
  • Fathinia, Behzad; Steven C. Anderson, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Hasan Jahani, and Hosien Mohamadi 2009. Notes on the Natural History of Pseudocerastes urarachnoides (Squamata: Viperidae). Russ. J. Herpetol. 16 (2): 134-138 - get paper here
  • Fathnia, B.; N. Rastegar Pouyani; H. Darvishnia; M. Rajabzadeh 2010. The snake fauna of Ilam Province, southwestern Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 6 (1) - get paper here
  • Gholamifard, A 2011. Endemism in the reptile fauna of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 7 (1) - get paper here
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY,<br />144 p..
  • Kamali, Kamran 2020. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Iran. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany ( 574 pp.
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Pouyani, N. R., Fathinia, B., & Rastegar-pouyani, E. 2021. Ecomorphological Study of Scales in Some Genera of the Viperid and Colubrid Snakes (Ophidia: Viperidae: Colubridae). Authorea Preprints - get paper here
  • Rajabizadeh, M. 2018. Snakes of Iran. [in Farsi] Tehran: Iranshenasi, 496 pp. [2017 ?] - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
  • Scholz, S. et al. 2020. Fields Trughornviper (Pseudocerastes fieldi) - Beobachtungen im Lebensraum und bei der Fortpflanzung im Terrarium. Elaphe 2020 (3): 68-77
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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